18 September 2021

In recent years, there has been a signifi­cant increase in international debates, re­search and socio-educational programmes focusing on youth empowerment. One of the main issues with this concept is related to how it is measured and evaluated. Evaluating so­cio-educational actions and projects is crucial in order to design, implement and improve educational practices that help young people to empower themselves. This article presents the process of building and validating a ru­bric, within the framework of the HEBE Pro­ject, for the evaluation of youth empowerment actions and projects. The methodological pro­cess consists of three phases: (1) Design of the rubric; (2) Expert validation by 17 practition­ers from different fields, 3 experts in evalua­tion and 5 young people; (3) And a compari­son by means of a pilot test with 20 projects or socio-educational services aimed at youth empowerment, in which 63 professionals par­ticipate. The results show evidence of validity and reliability of the rubric in order to evalu­ ate the quality of socio-educational practices, and also to design and implement actions that focus on youth empowerment. It is noted for being a validated and useful instrument for making educational assessments related to youth empowerment, and for its usefulness in generating processes of reflection that become the basis for rethinking and improving peda­gogical practices.



Please, cite this article as follows: Corbella Molina, L., Trull Oliva, C., Rodrigo-Moriche, M. P. y Úcar Martínez, X. (2021). Diseño y validación de una rúbrica para evaluar acciones y proyectos educativos de empoderamiento juvenil | Design and validation of a rubric to evaluate educational actions and projects on youth empowerment. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 79 (280), 537-555.

28 January 2021

Ortega y Gasset said that the excellent man is one who makes great demands on himself, and we should also note that school is where most people when starting out in life learn to make demands on themselves as it is where we start to discover that we are not princes of the world nor riotous people on whom the Graces always smile. However, schools are not unaffected by the social environment in which they operate, and nowadays it is clear that we live in an atmosphere of egalitarianism, in which excellence tends to be frowned upon and of sentimentalism, to the extent that arranging a lecture warning of the bad consequences of drugs becomes a risk, lest a student who is the child of a drugs lord who is currently in prison has their feelings hurt. In addition, society is no longer interested in truth and veracity, so that post-truth and lies run free and what is truly dominant is not knowledge but money, or, at least, welfare guaranteed by the state, even if this leads to generalised mediocrity or a reduction in civil liberties.


The harmful effects of this ideological trend are devastating, especially for people growing up in levels of society with little interest in culture. There is no doubt that confronting dominant forces is not a simple task but nobody with a vocation to educate should shrug their shoulders; instead they must ask themselves what to do so that new generations do not make these mistakes. This question is especially relevant for those with the greatest connection to adolescents as the period between the ages of 12 and 18 is very important in shaping the personality.


This monographic issue of the revista española de pedagogía presents works that reflect on the content of the most important lessons at these ages, offering guidance on how to teach in a way that promotes the cultivation of intelligence, that does not ignore the cultivation of memory in favour of rote learning, as we stand on the shoulders ofgiants, something that enables us to advance knowledge and also facilitate social mobility by obtaining qualifications.


Indeed, T. S. Eliot, in some well-known verses, said: “Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?” There is an urgent need to fight the easy temptation to stick to memorising data, without considering reality in all its depth. Millán-Puelles noted that human beings ask about the what of things, and this should not be answered by saying that we will understand it when we see them. Indeed, seeing is a first step, but we want to advance and understand the most profound nature of things by using intelligence, which some describe as the ability to intuslegere, to read the interior of what we see.


Therefore, this monographic issue considers the cultivation of intelligence from a wide range of focusses, including cognitive, emotional, aesthetic, moral, religious, sex education, physical education and more, and does not limit itself to education at school but also considers the responsibilities of the family. It could be said that it complies with the objective of offering a broad and diverse outlook on the subject, analysing and scrutinising it in detail, casting pedagogical light on its different dimensions, and opening up new perspectives for educational research and action. At the same time, it is worth noting that the 17 authors involved, who work in nine different educational institutions, do not shy away from tackling difficult questions that merit debate, relating to both the academic sphere and to the characteristics of a democratic society. Therefore, in their many voices, we as editors have endeavoured to address some of the most notable challenges that pedagogy can currently pose, the study of which is unlikely to result in the one best solution.


This issue starts with an article by Joseph Renzulli, who provides the theoretical underpinnings of and develops various practical ideas relating to Enrichment Clusters in schools. He defines these as spaces centred on an inductive and investigative learning process, characterised by being highly demanding, which result in a high level of learning and confronting relevant current real problems. His proposal stands in contrast to a context in which various factors have led to excessively prescriptive classes, stifling both the creativity of the teachers and the flame of self-discovery and the excitement of the search in the students. This professor from the University of Connecticut understands that intellectual development cannot be based solely on the transfer of content decided by educational authorities and its evaluation through traditional exams, but that, without disregarding these activities, it must be balanced with other types of action that enable teachers and students to express themselves and show initiative in such a way that their own judgement becomes relevant. Questions such as ones about the very democratic way of life of our societies, Renzulli claims, will only be possible if schools, particularly ones located in areas with fewer cultural and economic resources, cultivate these types of capacities, which are linked to creativity, innovation, initiative, and individual and collaborative enterprise, and which enable the formation of a significant number of citizens from different social classes who are capable of leading their own communities.


This first article, which advises on the criteria that should be present in any teaching, is followed by ten works set out analogically following the traditional order of classical education. And so this issue continues with a work on teaching philosophy and the cultivation of intelligence. Its author, José Antonio Ibáñez-Martín, introduced the concepts of critical thinking and indoctrination to the world of education in Spain, and now presents a new work from an innovative position.


Luis Arenal, the Head of Baccalaureate at the Colegio Tajamar in Madrid, provides an original work in which he explores the causes of the gradual disappearance of classical Greco-Latin languages and cultures from the curriculum, something that, in his view, is not unconnected to the greater importance given to the context over the text, which thus confuses means and ends. In effect, while many people tend to praise the classics in public, this author notes that few of them actually read them, and many of those who do seem not to discern the profound values that have made these particular works merit the title of lasting and timeless classics. History and grammar are not the main lessons the classics can offer us, according to Arenal. Instead these are only the means or tools that enable us to discover the meanings underlying them and so avoid misreadings, and so it does not make sense to fall short in studying them, thus restricting the immense depth of the potential lessons in these works. In accordance with this starting point, he proposes a plan for gradual, reflexive reading with clear objectives and the necessary strategies for students to be able to access the texts. And this access will be easier and more sustainable over time when we are able to present relevant meanings that are can be meaningful to adolescents, beyond the simplistic memorisation of names and dates. The author has long experience of how adolescents from all social settings are enraptured by classical texts, when they are well taught.


Fernando Blasco, from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, considers the capacity of mathematics for fostering thought, reasoning, and problem solving in an article that suggests innovative, motivational, and interdisciplinary ideas for the mathematics classroom. In human curiosity he discerns the impulse to solve problems understood in the broad sense, which encompass different areas and do not always have one single solution. He sets out the educational interest of what he describes as recreational mathematics, as well as making various proposals aimed at gifted and talented students aged between 6 and 18 that link this discipline to others of a more artistic nature and to situations in everyday life that also require communicative, instrumental, or, we could say, performative capacities. The heart of the question raised by this author is also the cornerstone of reasoning, of enquiry into the reasons that explain mathematical enigmas, that must accompany the entertaining, mysterious, and magical component of the teaching activity.


Next, Juan Luis Fuentes, from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, suggests that we conceive awe as a classical emotion that can make important contributions to current education and, more specifically to the path to accessing wisdom. After defining concepts, the author explains some pre-conditions for awe to be possible in a context where the capacity to be surprised is challenged, as everything tends to be presented as expected thanks to technological advances. These conditions direct us to a necessary attitude of humility, to exercise of gratitude, to careful observation of surroundings, or to discovery of the value within the self, avoiding instrumentalisation and narrow visions of utility. Finally, he proposes three lines of action that invite people to discover what is good, beautiful, and true, a different, more profound and calm view of natural surroundings, and an adaptation of vital rhythms, especially in the most important areas for human existence, including education.


Alberto Campo Baeza, an Academician of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando and architect who is recognised in all international forums, proposes a manifesto for beauty in the educational system. Without it, he categorically and clearly states, life loses its value to the point that is not worth living. This raises the question of who has the chance to access beauty, to which he responds that this privilege is available to everyone in a wide variety of ways, in very different times and very varied places. At the same time, he defends the ability of the fine arts, poetry, music, painting, philosophy, as field that exceptionally possess beauty, to cultivate the intelligence of children and young people, whom we must enable to immerse themselves fully in this activity, when they write a poem, when they sing with enthusiasm, when they draw and think with their hands, or when they understand a philosophical truth intrinsically linked to beauty.


For their part, Rafael Bisquerra and Èlia López-Cassà from the Universidad de Barcelona, focus on the intersection between intelligence and emotions. Delving deeper into the line of a long tradition of study of emotional intelligence, and after the first sections, which are dedicated to conceptual delimitation and to distinguishing related areas, the authors consider the place of moral emotions in secondary education, within emotional education. As they note, these emotions motivate moral action, and it is precisely in adolescence, owing to the explosion of emotions in the individuals and their peers of the same age, that the greatest attention is needed from educators to facilitate their correct development. In addition, their reflections on the emotional dimension of moral education are of special interest, as they leave behind the excessively rationalist focus of the 20th century, making way for a new perspective in which felt values have a special place as they are a mechanism that enables consistency between conduct and thought. In the last part, they make some practical recommendations with a significant connection to the position of teachers as role models in this sphere: the reinforcement of empathy, especially in diverse settings, the moral elevation produced by admiring acts of high value, and the systematisation of this process in three steps, namely, re-evaluation, imagination, and the decision to follow admirable moral behaviours.


David Reyero considers an area that is as important and delicate as it is necessary in integral education, namely studying the sexual dimension of the person. The rigour with which he approaches this complex issue and the depth with which he evaluates some current responses to this topic that are more politically correct than actually correct is laudable. One especially interesting idea he poses is the impossibility of providing a real education that starts from the dominant philosophies of suspicion and mistrust, as in the case of a certain critical pedagogy in the educational sphere, which holds that rules are no more than an illegitimate attempt at external domination and control, the result of which would automatically be an oppressive relationship, in view of which it would only be possible to admire what is original or identify errors in any proposal made, without any hope of finding something of value for leading a good life. This professor from the Universidad Complutense also explains how the lack of a teleological focus on the human being that includes, as is logical, the sexual life, pushes young people into an exclusively biological, superficial, and instrumentalising sexuality that is unable to comprehend the relational, communicative, reproductive, and intimate character of this human dimension. The complexity of this matter means it cannot be approached from a perspective that could be classed as puritanical, in the sense of being simplistic, banal, and based exclusively on abstinence, nor in the sense of unwanted consequences, but that it involves deeper elements of human affect and the meaning of sexuality that disciplines such as evolutionary psychology are incapable of understanding. Finally, the article proposes using a substantive ethics as a reference point that enables human beings to interpret themselves in reference frameworks that guide them towards a good life and which incorporate a language with a greater anthropological density.


The next article considers the contributions that the teaching of Christianity can make to intelligence, which inevitably involves considering that following Jesus is much more than just following a set of moral rules. Ramiro Pellitero, from the Universidad de Navarra, argues for the importance of intellectual capacities in knowledge of good and of God and their necessary harmony with other dimensions of the person, such as volitional, relational, and transcendental ones. On these lines, he shows the need to establish dialogues between faith, reason, ethics, and culture, as aspects that not only contradict one another but also feed back into each other: a lived, non-individualistic faith, linked to love; an expanded reason open to all of reality and to the big questions, which is notreduced to the experimental; an ethics that can support religion in the correct interpretation of the good of people; and a culture that refers to the wisdom of tradition and of the community. In the second part of the article, he champions the role of theology in transdisciplinary knowledge and in practical wisdom, where its social function stands out, something that should be compatible with a religious teaching that is attractive owing to the beauty of its content, while at the same time being clear and adapted to the particular circumstances of the students.


The article by M. del Rosario González Martín, Gonzalo Jover, and Alba Torrego, from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, analyses language as a vehicle for knowledge and for expressing reality, and more specifically its transformation owing to technological mediation in the stage of adolescence and in three distinct spaces, namely the private setting of the home, the school, and the public space of the city. At home, language makes it possible to shape habits and cultivate interiority, through the cultivation of a language that inhabits the home and social media, that is shared with all of the members of the family, where adolescents relate to older people in a space where they feel more comfortable, which, at the same time, rejuvenates the adults. In school, the authors underline the learning of the configuration of a larger us, in which the young person is one more person, where they learn order, systematisation, reasoning, and communication. And thirdly, they highlight participation in other forums, ones that are not part of the close settings, many of them digital, that help outline the adolescent’s identity and foster social participation, despite some contradictory and homogenising effects from virtual settings.


Finally, the team from the Universidad de Jaén comprising Alberto Ruiz-Ariza, Sara Suárez-Manzano, Sebastián López-Serrano, and Emilio J. Martínez-López studies physical activity and its relationship with the promotion of intelligence. This vindicatory and propositional article describes different didactic possibilities for intellectual development through physical exercise, which will undoubtedly be of interest for teachers in secondary education. Starting from the peripatetic experience of the Aristotelian school and the schools of other great philosophers, as well as from research done in recent decades, they claim that corporal movement is a stimulus for the general exercise of intellectual capacities, such as attention, concentration, information processing, memory, creativity, and ultimately learning, and also of specific capacities linked to certain subjects. Consequently, they propose an integral vision of physical education classes, where transversality and the hybridisation of content from different subjects, take precedence, transcending the organisation of content into sealed units; promotion of physical activity prior to the school day linked with active travel to the school; turning breaks, especially recess, into active periods that significantly disrupt the sedentariness of the classes; introducing physical activities into the ordinary classroom, as they regard corporal expression ascontributing to learning and containing an important motivating power. These are interesting proposals that might entail a review of current curriculum designs.


With the revista española de pedagogía on the threshold of becoming an octogenarian publication, we would sincerely like to thank all of the authors and reviewers for their participation in this monographic issue, in particular those who, while their teaching and research is not normally in the field of pedagogy, have dedicated their time and work to create a multidisciplinary issue that we trust will be of interest to our habitual readers and for whom, even if they are not from the sphere of the university, work with passion and dedication every day to cultivate their students’ intelligence, along with other human dimensions.

José Antonio Ibáñez-Martín

Professor. Universidad Internacional de La Rioja

Juan Luis Fuentes

Associate Professor. Universidad Complutense de Madrid



3 September 2020

This paper discusses the first results of the CONECT-ID project, which addresses young people’s digital identities from the perspective of hyperconnectivity based on their perception of time in digital leisure. Its main objective is to analyse young people’s time management and their hyper-connected perception of time. To do so, a qualitative study was performed using discussion groups with 130 participants organised in groups of respondents aged 12 to 16 and 16 to 18. Analysis was then performed using the NVivo software program. The results showed a difference in use and tools between the age groups. Both sets of groups claim to lose the concept of time, in particular the older ones. Younger respondents report having less availability of screens and more parental controls, while in contrast older ones state that they use the time management strategy less as self-regulation. School controls refer to students not being allowed to take mobile phones to school or use them there. It is apparent that the construction of young persons’ identity is a continuum between different virtual spaces and times and face to face situations. Young people with less parental control over time management require more self-management and self-regulation mechanisms. The results found warrant focussing pedagogical discourse on designing and promoting quality educational actions that make it possible to go beyond setting limits. This can be achieved by working on establishing healthy interpersonal relationships, social and communication skills, and time management in a range of settings that provide lasting benefits beyond mere entertainment.

Please, cite this article as follows: Muñoz-Rodríguez, J. M., Torrijos Fincias, P., Serrate González, S., & Murciano Hueso, A. (2020). Entornos digitales, conectividad y educación. Percepción y gestión del tiempo en la construcción de la identidad digital de la juventud | Digital environments, connectivity and education: Time perception and management in the construction of young people’s digital identity. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 78 (277), 457-475. doi:

3 September 2020

The time and way in which one lives should be addressed from a socio-educational point of view, an essential aspect for any young person in social difficulties to be able to achieve a full life, with legitimate aspirations and opportunities. The main objective of this research was to identify how young people in social difficulties use and manage their time, drawing on the words of the professionals who are responsible for their care, guardianship, guidance, and education. We also sought to identify the socio-educational intervention actions that are being carried out in different social resources to help young people to manage their time. For this purpose, a qualitative study was carried out using an open self-administered questionnaire to survey thirty professionals from the Community of Madrid, including social educators, teachers, social workers, and psychologists. The results indicate that, in the professionals’ opinion, young people do not use their time adequately and, mostly, they have no control over it, mainly due to personal situations that act as conditioning factors. There are also some notable achievements in time management acquired by these young people. Finally, the professionals’ testimonies suggest the use of different socio-educational intervention actions with young people to work on good habits and social values; protection, support, and guidance; as well as the proper management of leisure time. A line of future research opens up to study the effect of these actions on these young people’s independence and social inclusion.

Please, cite this article as follows: De-Juanas Oliva, Á., García-Castilla, F. J., Ponce de León Elizondo, A. (2020). El tiempo de los jóvenes en dificultad social: utilización, gestión y acciones socioeducativas | The time of young people in social difficulties: Use, management and socio-educational actions. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 78 (277), 477-495. doi:

9 May 2019

The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of protective and/or judicial measures on the transit to prison of young women who have been through these situations as minors, starting by identifying risk factors associated with the process. Consequently, it provides new verified benchmarks for intervention with the population of young women in prison. To this end, qualitative and quantitative methods are used with a sample of 599 female inmates from 42 Spanish prisons, to whom 538 surveys and 61 interviews were applied. Three subsamples were selected: protection centres (n = 60); foster care (n = 36), and judicial measures (n = 72). A descriptive and interpretative study was carried out using frequency analysis, contingency tables, independence tests, and measures of association. The results show that 20.3 % of young women in prison have a prior history of institutionalisation in protective measures and 13.4 % with judicial measures. The main risk factors identified are: low educational levels (69.4 % below secondary education), environments with family members or partners in prison (between 48 % and 63.2 %), addictions (drugs and alcohol), either personal or affecting family members (over 60 %), and a significant relationship between young people who experienced judicial measures as minors having made reports of abuse. In the discussion and conclusions, growth in criminal behaviour by young people, especially women, is evident. Regarding the group studied, the low valuation of their time in protection centres and judicial measures by the imprisoned women, the difficulty of their family and affective background, and their worryingly low levels of education are striking. These data support the bases for evaluating the early impact on processes of transit towards prison and the options for socio-educational intervention aimed at reintegration and inclusion.

This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 273 of the revista española de pedagogía. For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers. Please, cite this article as follows: Añaños-Bedriñana, F. T., Melendro Estefanía, M., & Raya Miranda, R. (2019). Mujeres jóvenes con medidas de protección y judiciales y sus tránsitos hacia la prisión | Young women with protective and judicial measures and their transition towards prison. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 77 (273), 333-350. doi:

8 May 2017

This paper presents an analysis of the process of integration among migrant young people in Catalonia aged from 14 to 18. For nthis purpose, a study was made, using a survey and four discussion groups probing the points of view of both the migrant and native youth. Results are organised around a model of integration based on four core dimensions: structural, cognitive-cultural, social and of identity; and confirm that a society which is plural in its beliefs, convictions and forms should be reflected in democratic systems and social and educational policies based on a concept of integration as reciprocity and understood as a fundamental principle in the management of diversity.




Cite this article as: Luna González, E., Palou Julián, B., & Sabariego Puig, M. (2017).  Reflexiones sobre el proceso de integración de la juventud extranjera en Cataluña: un enfoque socioeducativo | Analysing the integration process of migrant youth in Catalonia: a socio-educative approachRevista Española de Pedagogía, 75 (267), 275-291.  doi: