The Church as a Promoter of Vocational Training in the Basque Country and Navarre during FrancoismThe interest of the State in the vocational training within the Spanish educational system is a recent development. After several precedents, with varied ministerial dependence, this incorporation does not take place up to the General Law of Education (1970). Both public and private sectors took on this work to compensate for the disinterest of the State. The Church developed this educational level during the Francoism through the creation of numerous centres promoted by diocesan dependences and diverse orders and religious congregations. In the Basque Country and Navarre this situation is more no ticeable due to the traditional presence of these religious institutes and the process of industrialization that was developing at that time. This situation produced a wide offering in specialities and grades in all the levels of vocational training.The aim of this article is to explain this process, showing the existence of a network of centres all over the region. The primary sources used for this research come from the Ministry of Education and from some religious centres.
From a nation-wide research, directed by the author of this paper, we describe the headship leadership in centres which are scarcely studied, such as Vocational Training. The contributions of this paper as regards the roles, functions and competences of those centres headships are enriched by two facts: the contextualization and the inclusion in the Italian educational system and in the empirical research.
Key Words: Educational headship, headship in centres for Vocational Training, Vocational Training, Italian educational system
The development of vocational training is one of the most important aims to European Union. This aim is included in European Social Policy. But, What is the meaning of vocational training? Really, it is an improvement of knowledge, skills and attitudes to develop our work very good and to live better. The European Treaties (Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice), the European social actions and the employment orientations want to find different kind of training to different kind of people. European training programmes are the solution.
We have analysed initial and continuous training programmes. And we have used eight variables to make the analysis: needs, aims, people, methodology, teachers, actions, time necessary and evaluation. But, in this moment is possible to find three important training programmes that includes the other one: Socrates (initial training), Leonardo da Vinci (continuous training) and Research + Development (technological training).
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