10 January 2019

Self-determination is a good predictor of quality of life, which is defined as a strategy that aims to increase and improve the educational practices focused on individuals’ needs at a global and life-long-term level. Hence, the evaluation of this construct has undergone notable advances in our country due to the acceptance of international theoretical models and the design of specific instruments for our context. The ARC-INICO scale (Verdugo et al., 2014) assesses four characteristics of self-determined behavior in teenagers: autonomy, self-regulation, empowerment and self-concept. This structure is based on the Wehmeyer’s Functional Model (1999, 2003). It has only been validated with Spanish students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometrical properties of this scale in Galician population, checking its equivalence both for use with young people with neurological development disorders and without them. The sample was made up of 2 220 high school students. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted to test the scale structure using the original proposal based on a higher-order factor structure on a correlated four factor model, and a single-factor model which assumes the unidimensionality of self-determination. Regarding the reliability, high overall internal consistency and for its sections has been found. Although the unifactorial model offers an acceptable adjustment (Model 1: GFI = .958, AGFI = .941, RMSEA = .057), it is superior in the higher order model (Model 2: GFI = .970, AGFI = .954; RMSEA = .049). In addition, the factorial invariance measure shows the utility of model 2 to compare scores according to the presence or absence of neurological development disorders. In conclusion, the ARC-INICO scale provides an important basis for decisions making regarding the design of care programs, through the development of resources, guidelines and strategies, and provides information for the differential provision of said resources and supports.


This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 272 of the revista española de pedagogía. For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers. Please, cite this article as follows: Muñoz-Cantero, J. M., & Losada-Puente, L. (2019). Validación del constructo de autodeterminación a través de la escala ARC-INICO para adolescentes | Validation of the construct of selfdetermination through the ARC-INICO scale for teenagers. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 77 (272), 143-162. doi:

15 January 2018

Introduction: School failure is a major challenge at individual and social levels, owing to its negative impact on social cohesion, citizen participation, economic development, and sustainability and also its impact on health habits. Various studies have shown the link between family socio-economic level and educational results, to the point that this factor has been regarded as their principal
determinant. Nonetheless, the essentially attributing school failure to the students’ milieu is only descriptive in value and could impede the development of more appropriate responses to this challenge. A better systemic and integral understanding of the phenomenon might contribute to a better approach to the problem through the development of new proposals for public policy and socio-educational actions. To this end, it is necessary to have appropriate measurement instruments that evaluate different dimensions in an integrated manner. Method: The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Questionnaire on Determinants of Success at School (QDSS) in a sample of 858 secondary-school students resident in vulnerable socio-demographic settings from 5 Spanish cities. The questionnaire combines items about factors that specialist literature has significantly linked to educational attainment, excluding those that already have specific validated questionnaires. Results: The principal component analysis gave 7 factors: school environment, relationships with classmates, personal expectations, social capital, ITC study resources, climate in class, and family support. The goodness of fit indices show good properties for the questionnaire. Conclusion: The QDSS is an instrument that has appropriate psychometric properties for use in identifying factors that support educational success in secondary-school students.


Cite this article as: Longás Mayayo, J., Carrillo Álvarez, E., Fornieles Deu, A. and Riera i Romani, J. (2018). Desarrollo y validación del cuestionario sobre condicionantes de éxito escolar en alumnos de secundaria | Development and validation of a questionnaire about determinants of academic success in secondary school students. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 76 (269), 55-82. doi: