primary education

5 June 2023

Self-regulation is an important factor in achieving successful reading comprehension. This study analyses the effects of a self-regu­lated strategy instruction programme versus a control group on reading comprehension performance, time spent applying strategies during the reading comprehension process and reading self-efficacy. The programme com­prised two conditions (condition 1 and condi­tion 2) in which the teachers provided direct and explicit teaching of self-regulation strategies before, during and after the reading process. In condition 2, explicit instruction in reading self-efficacy was added. In the control condi­tion, teachers provided traditional instruction based on reading aloud, sequential reading, text questions and the use of dictionaries. A total of 180 Spanish primary school students from eight different Year 5 and 6 classes (aged 10-12 under the Spanish education system) were either assigned to one of the two experi­mental conditions (Condition 1: N = 47. Con­dition 2: N = 47) or to the control condition (N = 86). Pre-test/post-test/follow-up measures were taken (six weeks after the intervention) of reading performance, reading self-effica­cy and time spent applying self-regulation strategies before, during and after reading through an online assessment. The results showed that the instructional programme had a positive and significant effect in the two ex­perimental conditions compared to the control group in terms of reading performance and time spent applying self-regulation strategies before and after the reading process. Howev­er, no statistically significant differences were observed in the time spent applying strategies during reading and in reading self-efficacy, neither between the two experimental condi­tions nor between the experimental conditions and the control condition. The implications of these results and their contribution to educa­tional practices are discussed.

Please, cite this article as follows: Olivares, F., Fidalgo, R., & Torrance, M. (2023). Efectos de una instrucción estratégica-autorregulada en el proceso de comprensión y autoeficacia lectora del alumnado de educación primaria | Effects of self-regulated strategy instruction on the reading comprehension process and reading self-efficacy in primary students. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 81 (285), 271-290.

21 September 2021

The levels of Self-Perceived and Ob­served Information Literacy for a sample of in-service teachers and future teachers of Primary and Secondary Education are analysed as a whole and by its components of Searching for, Evaluating, Processing and Communicating Information. To do so, two validated tools are used which enable us to obtain Self-Perceived Information Literacy levels (through a self-assessment question­naire) and Observed Information Literacy levels (through performance measures) from 442 in-service teachers and future teachers of 7 educational institutions in 4 provinces of Castile and Leon (Spain). The results of the descriptive and inferential analyses show that the Self-Perceived Information Liter­acy is overestimated compared to the Ob­served Information Literacy for all groups, especially among future Primary Education teachers, with the in-service Secondary Edu­cation teachers showing the least difference between self-perception and performance. The Observed Information Literacy is at its best level among the Secondary Educa­tion teachers and lowest level among the future Primary Education teachers. At each educational level the performance of in-ser­vice teachers is always higher than the per­formance of future teachers, indicating the preponderance of experience versus the gen­erational effect. The components of the Ob­served Information Literacy with the lowest values for all groups are Searching for and Evaluating Information and, therefore, spe­cific training activities are recommended.



Please, cite this article as follows: Nieto-Isidro, S., Martínez-Abad, F., & Rodríguez-Conde, M.-J. (2021). Presente y futuro de la Competencia Informacional Docente en educación obligatoria | Present and future of Teachers’ Information Literacy in compulsory education. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 79 (280), 477-496.

14 May 2021

In this article, we analyse the reported use of evidence-based practices for the teaching of writing by teachers in compulsory education. These practices were taken from a review of meta-analysis studies in the field of writing in­struction. This study accounts for differences throughout compulsory education in the use of these instructional practices. We also analyse the effects of teachers’ variables such as per­sonal efficacy, general efficacy, attitudes and, preparation, on the instructional practices they use. Five-hundred and fifteen teachers of Spanish language and literature from dif­ferent primary and high schools in Castilla y León participated in the study. Participants completed an online questionnaire about how often they use evidence-based practices taken from an exhaustive review of meta-analyses in the field of writing instruction. In addition, we took measures of teachers’ personal and gen­eral efficacy, their attitudes towards writing and the teaching of writing, and their level of preparation to teach writing. The results show that teachers make little use of this type of in­structional practice, especially in high school. High school teachers reported significantly lower levels of personal efficacy and prepara­tion for the teaching of writing than teachers in primary grades. Teachers’ personal effica­cy level, their preparation for the teaching of writing, and their attitudes towards writing and its teaching influence their use of these instructional practices.

Please, cite this article as follows: Sánchez-Rivero, R., Alves, R. A., Limpo, T., & Fidalgo, R. (2021). Análisis de una encuesta sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en la educación obligatoria: prácticas y variables del profesorado | Analysis of a survey on the teaching of writing in compulsory education: Teachers’ practices and variables. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 79 (279), 321-340.

21 May 2020

The great social changes caused by the development of digital technologies have also started to transform the field of education thanks to the incorporation of new devices into the learning process. The purpose of this research is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state of the question based on a review of scientific literature regarding primary-school children’s use of tablets and changes that can be attributed to it. A fundamentally qualitative methodology with a narrative approach was used in this research to carry out documentary analysis of a sample of 163 articles indexed in Web of Science, Scopus and ERIC. This sample was selected by using different search operators according to the respective axes/categories of the topic of study. The information extracted was subjected to content analysis and contingency analysis. The latter made it possible to identify the relationship between the qualitative variables and the temporal perspective, based on Cramér’s V. This study’s findings show that tablets are used in the classroom and at home, although the types of activities differ. In the school context, it is worth noting the existence of patterns of practices connected to searching online for curriculum content and creating it, as well as communication and interaction. The learning strategies employed are linked to the individualisation of education, while cooperative and collaborative forms are not encouraged enough. The indicators of the impact of use of tablets point to an increase in students’ motivation during their learning, although at the same time it can also cause distractions.



This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 276 of the revista española de pedagogía. For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers. Please, cite this article as follows: Ricoy, M.-C., & Sánchez-Martínez, C. (2020). Revisión sistemática sobre el uso de la tableta en la etapa de educación primaria | A systematic review of tablet use in primary education. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 78 (276), 273-290. doi:


21 May 2020

The development of motor competencies is one of the most important objectives of physical education, and therefore it is necessary to assess it from a pedagogical approach using valid instruments. The MOBAK battery is designed to assess basic motor competencies in primary education. It differentiates by the stage in the curriculum, and proposes a two-factor structure corresponding to the basic motor competencies of object movement and self-movement. This study has three objectives: to determine the construct validity of three test instruments of the MOBAK battery for assessing motor competencies; to determine how gender, BMI, and age covariates relate to motor competencies; and to examine the level of basic motor competencies of primary school children in Chile. A total of 1,785 children (45.7% girls) were assessed, divided into 1st and 2nd grade (MOBAK 1-2; 559 children; 50.6 % girls), 3rd and 4th grade (MOBAK 3-4; 496 children, 39.3 % girls), and 5th and 6th grade (MOBAK 5-6; 730 children, 46.3 % girls). The construct validity of each section was analysed using the confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA). The results confirm the two-factor structure in all sections of the MOBAK battery, they confirm the relationship between motor competencies and the covariates gender, BMI, and age, and they show that Chilean primary school children have low levels of motor competence, especially in 5th and 6th grade. The MOBAK battery is a suitable instrument for the assessment of basic motor competencies in primary education and is a diagnostic and monitoring tool for pedagogical practices and educational research.



This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 276 of the revista española de pedagogía. For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers. Please, cite this article as follows: Carcamo- Oyarzun, J., & Herrmann, C. (2020). Validez de constructo de la batería MOBAK para la evaluación de las competencias motrices básicas en escolares de educación primaria | Construct validity of the MOBAK test battery for the assessment of basic motor competencies in primary school children. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 78 (276), 291-308. doi:

1 September 2017

As a result of the appearance in 2007 of the regulations governing the degree in Primary Teaching (PT), it now possible that generalist teachers might teach music without having any specific qualification in it. This research is intended to ascertain the extent to which students on the Primary Teaching degree feel that they are enabled to deliver this subject, using an ad hoc questionnaire for this purpose, which uses a reference point the music education curriculum content. A total of 301 students from three public universities in the Community of Madrid were surveyed after they took the music module in the 2013‑2014 academic year. The results obtained support the data from other similar international studies (Hallam et al., 2009; Watt, 2000), which reveal a marked shortfall in the music training received by future primary school teachers.


Cite this article as: Cremades-Andreu, R. & García-Gil, D. (2017). Formación musical de los graduados de Maestro en Educación Primaria en el contexto madrileño | Musical training for Primary Education graduates in the context of Madrid. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 75 (268), 415-431. doi: