The educational systems of avanced societies are a good example of highly complex systems. Their size, the multiplicity of components, the richness of interactions and the role of the socioeconomical environment are basic factors that explain their complexity. This article vindicates the complexity paradigm as an adequate epistemological frame for scientific analysis and policy-making in education.
This article deals with the main innovations and educational reforms that have taken place around the European Vocational Education and Training systems. Three aggregations of countries are recognised to structure this study, each of which have coincidences in their features: the technical and school vocational education and training systems (in the South of Europe and Scandinavian countries), the mixed systems of vocational education and training or dual systems (in Germany, Holland and Austria) and the countries where the post-occupational systems of vocational education and training prevail (Great Britain and Ireland).From two of the three groupings, South of Europe group and mixed systems, it has been studied some items, by using a comparative perspective, such as the typology of centres of post-obligatory vocational education systems, the plan of studies, specialisation and curriculum, the evaluation and certification. Some conclusions around the European dimension of the Vocational Education end the revision.
Key words: Vocational Education and Training systems. Educational system. Educational reforms. Europe. Innovation.
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