critical sense

26 January 2021

Thinking demands an effort that many peo­ple avoid. Teaching philosophy is an especially valuable tool for cultivating intelligence. The teacher’s action demands a difficult balance be­tween caring for the development of the student while respecting the condition as a person that is inherent to her. This equilibrium is easier to achieve if one has an accurate idea of the mean­ing of the critical sense and of the importance of avoiding indoctrinatory behaviour. This article offers new approaches to these topics that differ from those proposed in previous years.

It defends the idea of also relating critical sense to insight and an expanded reason, and it draws attention to the importance of uncover­ing the indoctrinating activities of some states, in order that we might know how to struggle against not just personal errors but also against mistaken public initiatives, identifying the strategies teachers, and in particular philosophy teachers, should foster to prevent their students from falling into the trap of indoctrination.

The article concludes with a brief descrip­tion of an innovative curriculum that was ap­proved in France in 2019 to offer teaching of philosophy in the baccalaureate.

Please, cite this article as follows: Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (2021). La enseñanza de la filosofía y el cultivo de la inteligencia. Una segunda mirada al Sentido Crítico y al Adoctrinamiento | Teaching philosophy and cultivating intelligence. A second look at Critical Thinking and Indoctrination. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 79 (278), 33-50.

22 January 2020

Philosophy with children is an ambitious pedagogical project based on a structured meditation on the conditions that make it possible and the object and aims of the educational process. This article presents a systematized overview of the main features of Philosophy for Children (P4C), considering it to be a multifaceted and plural approach that, despite the different theorizations proposed, still possesses some basic common traits. Starting from a review of the academic literature on the topic, this article presents some of the main conceptual and practical limitations of P4C, in relation to its theoretical insight and its practical implementation. These are potentially damaging criticisms, which, if not given serious consideration, could invalidate this educational approach. After a critical discussion of the weak points of P4C, this article shows the need to reframe clearly the nature of educational practice in general and how philosophical reflection in particular can contribute to it. Accordingly, educational experience is thought to be a radical process of creation of shared meaning by a community of inquiry involved in a shared rational and emotional search for truth. Consequently, this article proves the profound value of this educational approach, which can foster a well-rounded education of people and their full integration into the social and cultural context, enabling them to enjoy a flourishing and authentic life.



This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 275 of the revista española de pedagogía. For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers.Please, cite this article as follows: Scotton, P. (2020). Pensar en común, vivir en plenitud. La experiencia de la filosofía para los niños y niñas | Thinking together, living fully. Experiencing philosophy with children. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 78 (275), 103-118. doi: