construct validity

19 September 2021

Apps that help art teachers work on areas relating directly to artistic competences are a valuable digital teaching resource. In this study we call them art apps. Aims: To validate a measurement instrument for digital applica­tions based on the results we obtained in the first design phase, and to modify the items and identify factors. Methodology: We carried out three processes in this second phase. An exploratory factorial analysis, a pre-confirm­atory analysis, and a confirmatory factorial analysis adjusted by the global or absolute fit indices for all of the scales of the test. This was based on an evaluation battery comprising 98 items distributed in three dimensions and four scales: artistic dimension (expressive and perceptive domain), technical dimension, and pedagogical dimension. Results: We obtained a definitive model of all the scales with optimal values in all the adjustment indicators. Dis­cussion/Conclusion: After completing this pro­cess, we designed the definitive test based on the results of the fitting. Taking into account the resulting number of items (74), the num­ber of factors (8), and the wording of each one, we consider it to be a useful and viable tool for evaluating art apps by connecting their ar­tistic, technical, and pedagogical dimensions according to the needs and possibilities of the educational activities.



Please, cite this article as follows: Ordoñez Fernández, F. F., Caeiro Rodríguez, M., Barbero Franco, A. M., Martínez Oña, M. M., & Torres Pérez, A. (2021). Validación de un instrumento de evaluación de apps de arte que permiten desarrollar la competencia artística en entornos digitales | Validation of an instrument to evaluate art apps that enable the development of artistic skills in digital settings. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 79 (280), 515-536.

21 May 2020

This study is part of a research project into coexistence and school mediation. Its aim is to develop a tool (short version) to measure moral, emotional, and socio-cognitive training and the socio-personal impact of mediation on mediating pupils and teachers and mediated pupils. The theoretical starting model on which the development of this tool is based is the Educational Model for Development of Competences through Mediation (EMODESM). Methodology: the design is based on combining three previouslypublished questionnaires to create a single tool for evaluating mediation. The construct validity of this tool was studied in two phases. First, a sample of school students (n = 102) from Navarra (Spain) was evaluated, which gave rise to the revision of the tool. Second, the construct validity (confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis) and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha [α]) of the revised tool were assessed with a new sample of school students (n = 140) from the Autonomous Community of Valencia. Results: we present a mediation assessment tool (MEQ) with 23 items and four dimensions: social impact, the interpersonal emotional area, the personal emotional area, and the moral cognition area. The reliability of the questionnaire showed appropriate values (αTotal = 0.9497; αPerception- SocialImpact=0.7896; αEmotionalInterpersonal=0.7690; αEmotionalPersonal=0.8672; αCognitiveMoral=0.9402). Discussion: the structure of factors shown bythe MEQ questionnaire is not fully consistent with the EMOSDEM theoretical model. Consequently, we present a proposal for modifying the theoretical model on which it is based. Conclusions: a single validated and reliable mediation evaluation tool (MEQ) is presented, together with a review of the theoretical model for mediation.

This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 276 of the revista española de pedagogía. For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers. Please, cite this article as follows: Iriarte Redín, C., Ibarrola-García, S., & Aznárez-Sanado, M. (2020). Propuesta de un instrumento de evaluación de la mediación escolar (CEM) | Proposal for a school mediation evaluation tool (MEQ). Revista Española de Pedagogía, 78 (276), 309-326. doi:

15 January 2018

Teachers’ digital competencies have become an essential aspect of training teachers to promote learning in their students that moves away from the knowledge transfer model and moves towards a talent development model. This work validates an instrument developed by the authors to evaluate the digital competency of teachers, in accordance with the current framework established by INTEF. A sample of 426 teachers was used in the validation process. These were approached through an online process. The total reliability of the instrument, estimated using Cronbach’s Alpha, is 0.98. The reliability for the dimensions on the «Knowledge» scale varies from 0.89 to 0.94 and for the «Use» scale from 0.87 to 0.92. The construct validity has been modified from an initial model with 5 factors to another with 4 factors and 4 sub-factors. The factor loads of the items with the dimension to which they belong are mainly above 0.5 and in many cases above 0.70. On the «Knowledge» scale there is only 1 weight that does not reach this value. The overall fit results for both scales show optimum results, with values lower than 3 for the normalised chi-squared index, values below 0.06 in RMSEA, and values of 0.9 in IFI and CFI. Data is also provided regarding convergent and discriminant validity that is significant and acceptable. The construct reliability for the convergent validity in all cases approaches 0.90. As for the discriminant validity, the proposed model is better than the alternatives, with small variations in the «Use» scale that will be the object of future analyses. This instrument will make it possible to evaluate teachers’ competencies and help with the planning of personalised training pathways depending on their results.


Cite this article as: Tourón, J., Martín, D., Navarro, E., Pradas, S., & Íñigo, V. (2018). Validación de constructo de un instrumento para medir la competencia digital docente de los profesores (CDD) | Construct validation of a questionnaire to measure teachers’ digital competence (TDC)Revista Española de Pedagogía, 76 (269), 25-54. doi: