Effects of self-regulated strategy instruction on the reading comprehension process and reading self-efficacy in primary students

Efectos de una instrucción estratégica-autorregulada en el proceso de comprensión y autoeficacia lectora del alumnado de educación primaria

Fátima Olivares, Raquel Fidalgo, & Mark Torrance

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22550/REP81-2-2023-02

Self-regulation is an important factor in achieving successful reading comprehension. This study analyses the effects of a self-regu­lated strategy instruction programme versus a control group on reading comprehension performance, time spent applying strategies during the reading comprehension process and reading self-efficacy. The programme com­prised two conditions (condition 1 and condi­tion 2) in which the teachers provided direct and explicit teaching of self-regulation strategies before, during and after the reading process. In condition 2, explicit instruction in reading self-efficacy was added. In the control condi­tion, teachers provided traditional instruction based on reading aloud, sequential reading, text questions and the use of dictionaries. A total of 180 Spanish primary school students from eight different Year 5 and 6 classes (aged 10-12 under the Spanish education system) were either assigned to one of the two experi­mental conditions (Condition 1: N = 47. Con­dition 2: N = 47) or to the control condition (N = 86). Pre-test/post-test/follow-up measures were taken (six weeks after the intervention) of reading performance, reading self-effica­cy and time spent applying self-regulation strategies before, during and after reading through an online assessment. The results showed that the instructional programme had a positive and significant effect in the two ex­perimental conditions compared to the control group in terms of reading performance and time spent applying self-regulation strategies before and after the reading process. Howev­er, no statistically significant differences were observed in the time spent applying strategies during reading and in reading self-efficacy, neither between the two experimental condi­tions nor between the experimental conditions and the control condition. The implications of these results and their contribution to educa­tional practices are discussed.

Please, cite this article as follows: Olivares, F., Fidalgo, R., & Torrance, M. (2023). Efectos de una instrucción estratégica-autorregulada en el proceso de comprensión y autoeficacia lectora del alumnado de educación primaria | Effects of self-regulated strategy instruction on the reading comprehension process and reading self-efficacy in primary students. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 81 (285), 271-290. https://doi.org/10.22550/REP81-2-2023-02

Arrimada, M., Torrance, M., & Fidalgo, R. (2018). Effects of teaching planning strategies to first-grade writers. Educational Psychology, 89 (4), 670-688. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12251

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a uni­fying theory of behavioral change. Psycho­logical Review, 84 (2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.84.2.191

Berkeley, S., & Larsen, A. (2018). Fostering self-reg­ulation of students with learning disabilities: Insights from 30 years of reading comprehen­sion intervention research. Learning Disabili­ties Research & Practice, 33 (2), 75-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/ldrp.12165

Block, C. C., & Pressley, M. (2003). Best practices in comprehension instruction. In L. M. Morrow, L. B. Gambrell, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (pp. 111-126). Guilford.

Dignath, C., & Veenman, M. V. J. (2021). The role of direct strategy instruction and indirect activa­tion of self-regulated learning - evidence from classroom observation studies. Educational Psychology Review, 33, 489-533. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09534-0

Elleman, A. M., & Compton, D. (2017). Beyond compre­hension strategy instruction: What´s next? Lan­guage, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 48 (2), 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_lshss-16-0036

Elleman, A. M., & Oslund, E. L. (2019). Reading com­prehension research: Implications for practice and policy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6 (1), 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732218816339

Fidalgo, R., Arias-Gundín, O., & Olivares, F. (2013). Diseño y análisis psicométrico de una escala de auto-eficacia hacia la lectura [Reading comprehension self-efficacy questionnaire]. Aula Abierta, 41 (1), 17-26.

Fidalgo, R., Arias, O., Torrance, M., & Martínez, B. (2014). Comparison of reading-writing patterns and performance of students with and without reading difficulties. Psicothema, 26, 442-448. https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2014.23

Fidalgo, R., Torrance, M., & García, J.-N. (2008). The long-term effects of strategy-focused writ­ing instruction for grade six students. Contem­porary Educational Psychology, 33 (4), 672-693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.09.001

Fonseca, L., Migliardo, G., Simian, M., Olmos, R., & León, J. A (2019). Estrategias para mejorar la comprensión lectora: Impacto de un progra­ma de intervención en español. Psicología Ed­ucativa, 25 (2), 91-99. https://doi.org/10.5093/psed2019a1

Gao, Y. (2017). The effect of summary writing on read­ing comprehension: The role of mediation in EFL classroom. Reading Improvement, 54 (2), 82-86.

Hu, J., & Gao, X. (2017). Using think-aloud pro­tocol in self-regulated reading research. Edu­cational Research Review, 22, 181-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2017.09.004

Karlsson, J., van den Broek, P., Helder, A., Hickendorff, M., Koornneef, A., & van Leijenhorst, L. (2018). Profiles of young readers: Evidence from thinking aloud while reading narrative and expository texts. Learning and Individual Differences, 67, 105-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.08.001

Kintsch, W., & Rawson, K. A. (2005). Comprehen­sion. In M. J. Snowling, & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading. A handbook (pp. 209-226). Blackwell Publishing.

Krstić, K., Šoškić, A., Ković, V., & Holmqvist, K. (2018). All good readers are the same, but every low-skilled reader is different: An eye-tracking study using PISA data. European Journal of Psychology of Ed­ucation, 33, 521-541. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212- 018-0382-0

Minguela, M., Solé, I., & Pieschl, S. (2015). Flexible self-regulated reading as a cue for deep com­prehension: Evidence from online and offline measures. Reading & Writing, 28 (5), 721-744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-015-9547-2

OECD (2019). PISA 2018 Results (vol. I). What students know and can do. OECD. https://www.oecd.org/pisa/publications/pisa-2018-results-volume-i5f07c754-en.htm

Olivares, F., Fidalgo, R., & Torrance, M. (2016). Differences in reading self-efficacy between school years and according to gender. Journal of Psychodidactic, 21 (1), 45-63. https://doi.org/10.1387/RevPsicodidact.13832

Olive, T., Kellogg, R. T., & Piolat, A. (2002). The triple task technique for studying the process of writ­ing. In G. Rijlaarsdam (Ed.), T. Olive, & C. M. Levy, Studies in writing: Contemporary tools and techniques for studying writing (Vol.10) (pp. 31-59). Kluwer Academic Plublishers.

Ramos, J. L., & Cuetos, F. (2000). Evaluación de los procesos lectores [Assessment of reading processes]. PROLEC-SE. TEA.

Ripoll, J. C., & Aguado, G. (2014). La mejora de la comprensión lectora en español: un metaanálisis [Improving reading comprehension in Spanish: A meta-analysis]. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 19 (1), 27-44. https://doi.org/0.1387/RevPsicodidact.9001

Spörer, N., & Brunstein, J. C. (2009). Fostering the read­ing comprehension of secondary school Students through peer-assisted learning: Effects on strategy knowledge, strategy use, and task performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 289 - 297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2009.06.004

Spörer, N., Brunstein, J. C., & Kieschke, U. (2009). Im­proving students’ reading comprehension skills: Effects of strategy instruction and reciprocal teaching. Learning & Instruction, 19, 272-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.05.003

Tonks, S. M., & Taboada, A. (2011). Developing self-reg­ulated readers through instruction for reading en­gagement. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunck (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulated of learning and performance (pp.173-186). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203839010.ch11

Torrance, M., Fidalgo, R., & García, J. N. (2007). The teachability and effectiveness of cognitive self-reg­ulation in sixth grade writers. Learning and In­struction, 17, 265-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.02.003

Torrano, F., Fuentes, J. L., & Soria, M. (2017). Aprendizaje autorregulado: estado de la cuestión y retos psicopedagógicos. Perfiles Educativos, 156, 160-173.

Torrano, F., & Soria, M. (2017). Diferencias de género y aprendizaje autorregulado: el efec­to del rendimiento académico previo [Gender differences and self-regulated learning: The effect of prior academic achievement]. Revista Complutense de Educación, 28 (4), 1027-1042. http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/RCED.51096

Usher, E. R., & Pajares, F. (2008). Self-efficacy for self-reg­ulated learning: A validation study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 443-463.

Valdés Cuervo, A. A., García Vázquez, F. I., Torres Acuña, G. M., Urías Murrieta, M., & Grijalva Quiñones, C. S. (2019). Medición en inves­tigación educativa con apoyo del SPSS y el AMOS. Departamento de Educación, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora.

Vandevelde, S., Van Keer, H., & Rosseel, Y. (2013). Measuring the complexity of upper primary school children´s self-regulated learning: A multi-component approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, 407-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.09.002

Veenman, M. V. J., van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learn­ing: Conceptual and methodological consider­ations. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-006-6893-0

Vidal-Abarca, E., Gilabert, R., Martínez, T., Sellés, P., Abad, N., & Ferrer, C. (2007). Test de estrate­gias de comprensión, TEC. ICCE.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-reg­ulation and motivation. Historical back­ground, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 166-183. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831207312909

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.) (2015). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory research, and practice. Springer-Velarg.

Fátima Olivares Iglesias holds a PhD in Psychology and Education Sciences. She is a Professor at the Department of Education at the Universidad Interna-cional de la Rioja. Her research interests fo­cus on the study of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational variables in reading comprehension and written composition.


Raquel Fidalgo is a Professor of De­velopmental and Educational Psychology at the Universidad de León. She holds a PhD in Psychology and Education Sciences. She lectures in Developmental and Edu­cational Psychology at the University of León. Her research focuses on the assess­ment of variables such as metacognition, self-regulation and self-efficacy in complex cognitive skills such as comprehension and written composition.


Mark Torrance is Associate Profes­sor in Psychology at Nottingham Trent University (UK) and also currently Ad­junct Research Professor at the National Reading Centre, University of Stavanger, Norway. His research focuses on the edu­cational and cognitive psychology of text production.


Data collected by PlumX Metrics. More information on the metrics collected can be found at https://plumanalytics.com/learn/about-metrics/