Perceived parenting style and quality of life related to health among adolescents
Rosalía Jódar Martínez, María del Pilar Martín Chaparro, María Dolores Hidalgo Montesinos, & Juan Pedro Martínez Ramón
The interaction between health-related quality of life and parenting styles can give rise to perceptions that influence behaviour in adolescents. It is thought to affect key el- ements in the emotional development of stu- dents at a very important stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the re- lationship between health-related quality of life and perceived parental educational style as a function of parental gender. A total of 253 adolescents aged 11 and 18 years were selected from secondary schools in a region of south-eastern Spain. The Scale of Norms and Demands Children’s Version (ENE-H by its Spanish acronym) and the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used. This was a quantitative research project and data mining was used for data analysis. The results showed that the inductive parenting style is related to physical role, emotional problems, vitality, emotional well-being, pain and general health. We also observed that the rigid style is neg- atively related to physical role, vitality, emo- tional well-being, social functioning, pain and general health. Finally, the indulgent style is negatively related to pain. The findings shed light on the need to provide health-related training programmes that consider family characteristics.
Please, cite this article as follows: Jódar Martínez, R., Martín Chaparro, M. P., Hidalgo Montesinos, M. D., & Martínez Ramón J. P. (2022). Percepción del estilo parental y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud entre adolescentes | Perceived parenting style and quality of life related to health among adolescents. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 80 (283), 559-581. https://doi.org/10.22550/REP80-3-2022-07
Alonso, J., Prieto, L., & Anto, J. (1995). La versión española del SF-36 health survey (cuestionario de salud SF-36): un instrumento para la medida de los resultados clínicos [The Spanish version of the Short Form 36 Health Survey: A decade of experience and new developments]. Medicina Clinica, 104 (20), 771-776.
Alonso-Stuyck, P. (2020). Parenting and healthy teenage lifestyles. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155428.
Bagan, G., Tur-Porcar, A. M., & Llorca, A. (2019). Learning and parenting in Spanish environments: Prosocial behavior, aggression, and self-concept. Sustainability 11, 51-93. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195193
Bahmani, T., Naseri, N. S., & Fariborzi, E. (2022). Relation of parenting child abuse based on attachment styles, parenting styles, and parental addictions. Current Psychology. https://doi. org/10.1007/s12144-021-02667-7
Baña Castro, M. (2015). El rol de la familia en la calidad de vida y la autodeterminación de las personas con trastorno del espectro del autismo [The role of the family in the quality of life and self-determination of persons with autism spectrum disorder]. Ciencias psicológicas, 9 (2), 323-336.
Barlow, M. A., Wrosch, C., & McGrath, J. J. (2020). Goal adjustment capacities and quality of life: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality, 88 (2), 307-323. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12492.
Bersabé, R. M., Fuentes, M. J., & Motrico, E. (2001). Análisis psicométrico de dos escalas para evaluar estilos educativos parentales [Psychometric analysis of two scales for assessing parental educational styles]. Psicothema, 13 (4), 678-684.
Cabecinha-Alati, S., Malikin, H., & Montreuil, T. (2020). Emotion regulation and personality as predictors of mothers’ emotion socialization practices. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12501
Carlo, G., Mestre, M. V., Samper, P., Tur, A., & Armenta, B. E. (2010). Feelings or cognitions? Moral cognitions and emotions as longitudinal predictors of prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 48 (8), 865-962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. paid.2010.02.010
Chávez-Flores, Y. V., Hidalgo-Rasmussen, C. A., & Muñoz Navarro, S. (2018). Relaciones intrafamiliares y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en adolescentes mexicanos que se autolesionan sin intención suicida [Intrafamilial relationships and health-related quality of life in Mexican adolescents who engage in selfharm without suicidal intent]. Salud and Sociedad, 9 (2), 130-144. https://doi.org/10.22199/ S07187475.2018.0002.00001
Chen, L, Chen, P., & Lin, Z. (2020). Artificial intelligence in education: A review [La inteligencia artificial en la educación: una revisión]. IEEE Access, 8, 75264-75278. https://doi.org/10.1109/ ACCESS.2020.2988510
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Cohrdes, C., & Mauz. E. (2020). Self-efficacy and emotional stability buffer negative effects of adverse childhood experiences on young adult health-related quality of life. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67 (1), 93-100. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.01.005
Delvecchio, E., Germani, A., Raspa, V., Lis, A., & Mazzeschi, C. (2020). Parenting styles and child’s well-being: The mediating role of the perceived parental stress. Europe`s Journal of Psychology, 16 (3), 514-531. https://doi. org/10.5964/ejop.v16i3.2013
Diggs, O. N., Neppl, T. K., Jeon, S., & Lohman, B. (2017). The association of harsh parenting, parent-child communication, and parental alcohol use with male alcohol use into emer- ging adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Heal- th, 61 (6), 736-742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.06.025
Estlein, R. (2021). Parenting as a communication process: Integrating interpersonal communication theory and parenting styles conceptualization. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 13 (1), 21-33.https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12407
Fan, J., & Chen, B. B. (2020). Parenting styles and co-parenting in China: The role of parents and children’s sibling status. Current Psychology, 39, 1505-1512. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00379-7
Feeney, R., Desha, L., Khan, A., Ziviani, J., & Nicholson, J. M. (2016). Speech and language difficulties along with other child and family factors associated with health related quality of life of Australian children. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 11 (4), 1379-1397. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11482-015-9443-6
García, A. E. (2020). Estilos de socialización parental en una muestra de adolescentes chilenos [Parental socialisation styles in a sample of Chilean adolescents]. Revista de Psicología Clínica con Niños y Adolescentes, 7 (1), 46-51. https://doi.org/10.21134/rpcna.2020.07.1.6
Gomes A. C., Rebelo, M. A. B., de Queiroz, A. C., de Queiroz, A. P. C., Herkrath, A. P. C., Herkrath, F. J., Rebelo, J. M., Pereira, J. V., & Vettore, M. V. (2020). Socioeconomic status, social support, oral health beliefs, psychosocial factors, health behaviours and health-related quality of life in adolescents. Quality of Life Research, 29, 141-151. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11136-019-02279-6
Gorostiaga, A., Aliri, J., Balluerka, N., & Lameirinhas, J. (2019). Parenting styles and internalizing symptoms in adolescence: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 3192. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173192
Gottfredson, N. C., Hussong, A. M., Ennett, S. T., & Rothenberg, W. A. (2017). The role of parental engagement in the intergenerational transmission of smoking behavior and identity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60 (5), 599-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.11.004.
Guevara, R. M., Moral-García, J. E., Urchaga, J. D., & López-García, S. (2021). Relevant factors in adolescent well-being: Family and parental relationships. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (14), 7666. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147666
Haslam, D., Poniman, C., Filus, A., Sumargi, A., & Boediman, L. (2020). Parenting style, child emotion regulation and behavioral problems: The moderating role of cultural values in Aus- tralia and Indonesia. Marriage & Family Review, 56 (4), 320-342. https://doi.org/DOI10.10 80/01494929.2020.1712573
Hawkins, A. J., Clyde, T. L., Doty, J. L., & Avellar, S. (2020). Best practices in family life educa- tion program evaluation. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Science, 69, 479-496. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12420
Heinze, J. E., Hsieh, H. F., Aiyer, S. M., Buu, A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2020). Adolescent family conflict as a predictor of relationship quality in emerging adulthood. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Science, 69 (5), 996-1011. https://doi.org/10.1111/ fare.12493
Jahng, K. E. (2019). Exploring pathways to middle school students’ life satisfaction. Child Indicators Research, 12, 1643-1662. https://doi. org/10.1007/s12187-018-9602-z
Jiménez-Iglesias, A., Moreno, C., Ramos, P., & Rivera, F. (2014). What family dimensions are important for health-related quality of life in adolescence? Journal of Youth Studies, 18, 53-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2014.933191
Jones, E., Oliphant, E., & Peterson, P. (2001). SciPy: Open Source Scientific Tools for Python. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/213877848_SciPy_Open_Source_Scientific_Tools_for_Python
Kim, K. W., Wallander, J. L., Depaoli, S. Elliot, M. N., & Schuster, M. A. (2021). Longitudinal associations between parental SES and adolescent health-related quality of life using growth curve modeling. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 30, 1463-1475. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10826-021-01970-y
King, K. A., Vidourek, R. A., & Merianos, A. L. (2016). Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 44 (2), 130-139. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1132870
Kuppens, S., & Ceulemans, E. (2019). Parenting styles: A closer look at a well-known concept. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28, 168-181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1242-x
León-del-Barco, B., Mendo-Lázaro, S., Polo-del- Río, M. I., & López-Ramos, V. M. (2019). Parental psychological control and emotional and behavioral disorders among Spanish adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 507. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030507
Leung, J. T. Y., & Shek, D. T. L. (2020). Parental sacrifice, filial piety and adolescent life satisfaction in Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 15 (1), 259-272. https:/doi.org/10.1007/ s11482-018-9678-0
Li, Y., Wang, J., & Luo, L. (2020). Family migration and educational outcomes of migrant children in China: the roles of family investments and school quality. Asia Pacific Education Review, 21, 505-521. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-020-09639-9
Liu, L., Meng, W., & Liu B. (2022). The medi- ating role of social support in the relationship between parenting styles and adolescent drug abuse identification. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.802408
Louis, J. P. (2022). The young parenting inventory (YPI-R3), and the Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin parenting model: Finding common ground. Children, 9 (2), 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9020159
Luan, H., Geczy, P., Lai, H., Gobert, J., Yang, S., Ogata, H., Baltes, J., Guerra, R., Li, P., & Tsai, C. C. (2020). Challenges and future directions of big data and artificial intelligence in education. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 580820. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fpsyg.2020.580820
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent– child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Hand-book of child psychology Vol. 4 (pp. 1–101). Wiley.
Marčinko, D., Jakšić, N., Rudan, D., Bjedov, S., Rebernjak, B., Skopljak, K., & Bilić, V. (2020). Pathological narcissism, negative parenting styles and interpersonal forgiveness among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatria Danubina, 32, 395-402. https://doi.org/10.24869/ psyd.2020.395
Martínez, E., & Julián, A. (2017). Relación entre los estilos educativos parentales o prácticas de crianza y la ansiedad infanto-juvenil: una revisión bibliográfica [The relationship between parenting styles or parenting practices, and anxiety in childhood and adolescence: a syste- matic review]. revista española de pedago- gía, 75 (267), 337-351. https://doi.org/10.22550/REP75-2-2017-10
Martínez, I., García, F., Fuentes, M. C., Veiga, F., Garcia, F., Rodrigues, Y., Cruise, E., & Serra, E. (2019). Researching parental socialization styles across three cultural contexts: Scale ESPA29 bi-dimen- sional validity in Spain, Portugal, and Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16 (2), 197. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020197
Morales-Rodríguez, F. M., Martínez-Ramón, J. P., Méndez, I., & Ruiz-Esteban, C. (2021). Stress, coping, and resilience before and after COVID-19: A predictive model based on arti- ficial intelligence in the university environment. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647964
Moreno, M. J. H., Espada, S. J. P., & Gómez, B. M. (2020). Role of parenting styles in internalizing, externalizing, and adjustment problems in children. Mental Health, 43 (2), 73-84. https://doi.org/10.17711/SM.0185-3325.2020.011
Moreno-Ruiz, D., Estévez, E., Jiménez, T. I., & Murgui, S. (2018). Parenting style and reactive and proactive adolescent violence: Evidence from Spain. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15 (12), 26-34. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122634
Motamed-Gorji, N., Qorbani, M., Nikkho, F., Asadi, M., Motlagh, M. E., Safari, O., Arefirad, T., Asayesh, H., Mohammadi, R., Mansourian, M., & Kelishadi, R. (2019). Association of screen time and physical activity with health-related quality of life in Iranian children and adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 17 (1), 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-1071-z
Musitu, G., & García, F. (2001). ESPA29: Escala de estilos de socialización parental en la adolescencia [ESPA29: Parental socialization scale in adolescence]. Tea.
Newman, J., Gozu, H., Guan, S., Lee, J. E., Li, X., & Sasaki, Y. (2015). Relationship between maternal parenting style and high school achievement and self-esteem in China, Turkeyand
U.S.A. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 46 (2), 265-288. https://doi.org/10.3138/jcfs.46.2.265
Oliphant, E. (2006). A guide to NumPy. Trelgol Publishing.
Organic Law 3/2018, of 5 December, on the Protection of Personal Data and Guarantee of Digital Rights. Spanish Official State Gazette, 294, 6 December 2018, pages 119788 to 119857. https://www.boe.es/eli/es/lo/2018/12/05/3
Pinquart, M. (2017). Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with internalizing symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Marriage & Family Review, 53 (7), 613-640. https://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2016.1247761
Pinquart, M., & Gerke, D. C. (2019). Associations of parenting styles with self-esteem in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28 (8), 2017-2035. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01417-5
Queiroz, P., García, O. F., García, F., Zacares, J. J., & Camino, C. (2020). Self and nature: Parental socialization, self-esteem, and environmental values in Spanish adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103732
Quinlan, R. (1993). C4.5: Programs for machine learning. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Ruth, B., Astor, R., Pineda, D., DePedro, K., Weiss, E., & Benbenishty, R. (2017). Parental involvement and perceptions of school climate in California. Urban Education, 56 (3), 393-423. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085916685764
Setiyowati, E., Hanik, U., & Affandi, M. (2019). The correlation between parenting style and child creativity development. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 10 (s1). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2019.1207
Yaffe, Y. (2020). Systematic review of the differences between mothers and fathers in parenting styles and practices. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01014-6
Wallander, J. L., & Koot. H. M. (2016). Quality of life in children: A critical examination of concepts, approaches, issues, and future directions. Clinical Psychology, 45, 131-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.007.
Ware, J., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30 (6), 473-483.
Willroth, E. C., Atherton, O. E., & Robins, R. W. (2021). Life satisfaction trajectories during adolescence and the transition to young adul- thood: Findings from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 120 (1), 192-205. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000294
Wittig, S. M., & Rodriguez, C. M. (2019). Emerging behavior problems: Bidirectional relations between maternal and paternal parenting styles with infant temperament. Developmen- tal Psychology, 55 (6), 1199-1210. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000707
Xu, F., Xing, H., Yu, W., Chen, S., & Li, H. (2017). Health-related quality of life and influencing factors among migrant children in Shaoxing, China. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 15 (1), 100. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-017-0679-8.
Zarra-Nezhad, M., Viljaranta, J., Sajaniemi, N., Aunola, K., & Lerkkanen, MK. (2020). The impact of children’s socioemotional development on parenting styles: the moderating effect of social withdrawal. Early Child Development and Care, 192 (7), 1032-1044. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2020.1835879
Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, M. A., Veldkamp, S. A., Neumann, A., Barzeva, S. A., Nelemans, S. A., van Beijsterveldt, C. E., Branje, S. J., Hillegers, M. H., Meeus, H., Tiemeier, H., Hoijtink, H. J., Oldehinkel, A. J., & Boomsma, D. I. (2020). Parental age and offs- pring childhood mental health: A multi-cohort, population-based investigation. Child Development, 91, 964-982. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13267
Zvara, B. J., Lathren, C., & Mills-Koonce. R. (2020). Maternal and paternal attachment style and chaos as risk factors for parenting behavior. Family Relations, 69, 233-246. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12423
Rosalía Jódar Martínez holds a PhD in psychology. She works as a Lecturer in psychology at the Universidad Católica de Ávila and is the work placement coordinator for the master’s degree in gener- al health psychology. Her main research interests include emotional intelligence, social and health psychology, educational psychology and artificial intelligence.
María del Pilar Martín Chaparro holds an undergraduate degree in psychology, a master’s degree in clinical and health psychology and a PhD in psychology (Universidad de Granada). She is currently secretary of the School of Psychology Practice and lecturer at the Department of Psychiatry and Social Psychology at the Universidad de Murcia. She has worked as a visiting research scholar at the University of Connecticut (USA) and has participated in numerous national and international. Her main research interests are resilience and health in the fields of psychology, public relations, mental health, family and suicide prevention. conferences.
María Dolores Hidalgo Montesinos holds a PhD in psychology. She is currently a Professor in psychometrics at the Psychology Department at the Universidad de Murcia. Some of her work has focused on the transcultural adaptation of scales of social anxiety and interpersonal difficulties in adolescents and on the development of new tools in health psychology. Her primary areas of research are differential item functioning (DIF), item response theory (IRT), transcultural test adaptation and the development of evaluation tests and surveys.
Juan Pedro Martínez Ramón holds a degree and a PhD in psychology, a degree in educational psychology and a master’s degree in neurophysiology and education. He has worked for around 15 years on guidance teams and in secondary schools in the field of educational guidance. He is currently a Lecturer at the Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology at the Universidad de Murcia. His main research interests include coexistence and educational psychology, with a special focus on artificial intelligence, stress, bullying, coping and resilience.
Data collected by PlumX Metrics. More information on the metrics collected can be found at https://plumanalytics.com/learn/about-metrics/