The quality of governance of the education system. The case of the LOMLOE

La calidad de la gobernanza del sistema educativo. El caso de la LOMLOE

Francisco López Rupérez


*  Organic Law 3/2020, of 29 December, which amends Organic Law 2/2006, of 3 May, on Education.

In the context of a highly complex social and economic landscape, getting educational reforms right is a crucial part of governance understood as the ability of governments to design, formulate and implement public poli­cies. This work focuses on the quality of gov­ernance in the education system. It starts by reviewing the concept of governance and its characteristic features. It then considers the quality of governance in education based on an integrated conceptual model, which is vali­dated through a Delphi process of consultation of experts, and an international comparative analysis. The main results of an exploratory evaluation carried out in 2017 of the quality of governance in the Spanish education sys­tem are described next. Finally, the contribu­tions of the LOMLOE legislation introduced in (2020) are analysed and evalu­ated in the light of the criteria derived from this conceptual model. The main conclusion that emerges from these empirical results is that the Spanish education system has a long journey ahead of it in terms of improving the quality of its governance.



Please, cite this article as follows: López Rupérez, F. (2022). La calidad de la gobernanza del sistema educativo. El caso de la LOMLOE | The quality of governance of the education system. The case of the LOMLOE. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 80 (281), xxx-xxx.

Adams, D., G. Kee, & L. Lin (2001). Linking research, policy, and strategic planning to education development in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Comparative Educa­tion Review, 45 (2), 220-241. http://dx.doi. org/10.1086/447662

Albrecht, K. (2002). The power of minds at work. organizational intelligence in action. AMACOM.

Berggruen, N., & Gardels, N. (2012). Gobernan­za inteligente para el siglo xxi. Una vía inter­media entre occidente y oriente [Smart gov-ernance for the 21st century. A middle way between the West and the East]. Taurus.

BOCG (2020a). Congress of Deputies, series A, no. 7-3, of 19/11/2020. Report of the presen­tation.

BOCG (2020b). Senate, section I, No. 124-1062, of 12/17/2020. Amendments. 3FH1XtU

BOCG (2020c). Senate, Section I, No. 124-1110, of 12/17/2020. Veto proposals. 3mE4Vb9

BOCG (2020d). Senate, Section I, No. 126-1120, dated 12/21/2020. Amendments (continued).

Branch, G. F., Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. (2012). Estimating the effect of leaders on public sector productivity: The case of school principals. Working Paper 17803. National bureau of Economic Research. http://www.

Burns, T., & Köster, F. (Eds.) (2016a). Governing education in a complex world. Educational Research and Innovation. OECD Publishing.

Burns, T., & Köster, F. (2016b). Modern gover­nance challenges in education. In T. Burns & F. Köster (Eds.), Governing Education in a Complex World (pp. 17-40). Educational Research and Innovation. OECD Publishing. https//dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264255364-en

Congreso de los Diputados (2020). Congress of Deputies’ Journal of Sessions of 15 October 2020 (number 179, page 2).­VPdNG

CEOE (2017). La educación importa. Libro blan­co de los empresarios españoles [Education Matters. White Paper of Spanish employers]. CEOE.

Christmann, J. P. (2014). The contribution of Or­ganizational Intelligence in creating value in companies. ISCT Business School. Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.

Fazekas, M., & Burns, T. (2012). Exploring the complex interaction between governance and knowledge in education. OECD Education Working Papers, no 67. OECD Publishing.

Finnish National Agency for Education (2017). Education in Finland. Finnish National Agency for Education.

Gordon, J., Halasz, G., Krawczyk, M, Leney, M., Michel, M., Pepper, D., Putkiewicz, E., & Wiś­niewski, J. (2009). Key competences in Europe: Opening doors for lifelong learners across the school curriculum and teacher education. CASE Network Reports, 8. Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE).

Grindel, M. S. (2010). Good governance: The in­flation of an idea faculty research. Working Paper Series RWP10-023. Harvard Kennedy School.

Haber-Veja, A., & Mas-Basnuevo, A. (2013). Inteligencia organizacional: conceptos, mo­delos y metodologías [Organisational inte­lligence: Concepts, models and methodolo­gies]. Revista Eletrônica de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação, 18 (38), 1-18. ht­tps:// 8p1

Hanushek, E. A., Rivkin, S. G., & Schiman, J. C. (2016). Dynamic effects of teacher turnover on the quality of instruction. Economics of Education Review, 55, 132-148.

Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2019). The economic benefits of improving educational achievement in the European Union: An up­ date and extension. European Commission.

Hargreaves, A., & Shirley, D. (2009). The fourth way: The inspiring future of educational change. Corwin.

Harris, A., Jones, M. S., Adams, D., Perera, C. J., & Sharma, S. (2014). High-performing edu­cation systems in Asia: Leadership art meets implementation science. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 23, 861-869. https://

Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers make a difference: What is the research evidence? [Paper Pre­sentation]. Building Teacher Quality: What does the research tell us ACER Research Conference, Melbourne, Australia. https://­ce_2003/4/

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analysis relating to achieve­ment. Routledge.

Hewitt de Alcántara, C. (1998). Uses and abuses of the concept of governance. International Social Science Journal, 50 (1), 105-113. ht­tps://

Kairamo, K. (Ed.) (1989). Education for life. A European strategy. Butterworths & Round Table of European Industries.

Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Zoido-Lobatón, P. (1999a). Aggregating governance indicators. Working paper no 2195. World Bank Policy Research.

Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Zoido-Lobatón, P. (1999b). Governance matters. Working pa­per no 2196. World Bank Policy Research.

Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Zoido-Lobatón, P. (2000). Governance matters. From measure-ment to action. Finance & Development, 37 (2). fandd/2000/06/pdf/kauf.pdf

Kaufmann, D., & Kraay, A. (2002). Growth with-out governance. Working Paper no 2928. World Bank Policy Research.

Landeta, J. (1999). El método Delphi. Una téc­nica de previsión para la incertidumbre [The Delphi method. A forecasting tech-nique for uncertainty]. Editorial Ariel.

Leithwood, K., & Sun, J. (2012). The nature and effects of transformational school lead-ership: A meta-analytic review of unpub-lished research. Educational Administra­tion Quarterly, 48 (3), 387-423. https://doi. org/10.1177/0013161X11436268

Levin, B. (2010). Governments and education reform: Some lessons from the last 50 years. Journal of Educational Policy, 25 (6), 739-747. 80939.2010.523793

López Rupérez, F. (1994). La gestión de calidad en educación [Quality management in edu­cation]. La Muralla

López Rupérez, F. (1997). Complejidad y edu­cación [Complexity and education]. revista española de pedagogía, 55 (206), 103-112. complejidad-y-educacion/101400002067/

López Rupérez, F. (2012). Prólogo [Prologue]. In E. D. Hirsch, La escuela que necesitamos (pp. 21-30). Ediciones Encuentro.

López Rupérez, F. (2021). La gobernanza de los sistemas educativos. Fundamentos y orien­taciones [The governance of education sys­tems. Foundations and orientations]. Nar­cea Ediciones-UCJC Stamp.

López Rupérez, F., García García, I., & Expó­sito Casas, E. (2017). La calidad de la go­bernanza del sistema educativo español. Un estudio empírico [The quality of governance in the Spanish education system. An empir-ical study]. Universidad Camilo José Cela.

López Rupérez, F., & García García, I. (2020). España vs. Portugal en educación. Una aproximación sistémica [Spain vs. Portugal in education. A systemic approach]. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 84 (1), 193- 215. https//

López Rupérez, F., García García, I., & Expósito Casas, E. (2020a). Un marco analítico para la evaluación de la calidad de la gobernan­za de los sistemas educativos [An analytical framework for the evaluation of the quality of governance of education systems]. Revis­ta Iberoamericana de Educación, 83 (1), 53- 76.

López Rupérez, F., García García, I., & Expó­sito-Casas, E. (2020b). School leadership in Spain. Evidence from PISA 2015 assess­ ment and recommendations. Leadership and Policy in Schools. 80/15700763.2020.1770806

Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesio­nal (2021). Enfoques de la ley de educación [Approaches to education law]. https://bit. ly/3CXk10P

Morin, E. (1990). Introduction à la pensée com­plexe [Introduction to complex thinking]. ESF Éditeur.

OCDE (2001). Analyse des politiques d´éduca­tion. Chap. 1-2. Éditions de l´OCDE.

OCDE (2015). Política educativa en perspecti­va. Hacer posibles las reformas [Education policy in perspective. Making reforms posi­ble]. OCDE-Santillana.

OECD (2015). Final NAEC synthesis. New approaches to economics challenges. OECD.­nal-NAEC-Synthesis-Report-CMIN2015-2. pdf

OECD (2016). Governing education in a com­plex world. Educational Research and Inno­vation. OECD Publishing.

OECD (2018). Curriculum flexibility and auto­nomy in Portugal. An OECD review. OECD.

OECD (2019). PISA 2018 Results (vol-ume I): What students know and can do. OECD Publishing. 5f07c754-en

OECD-CERI (2015). Governing complex edu­cation systems (GCES). https://oecdeduto­­tems/?

Organic Law 2/2006, of 3 May, on Education. Spanish Official State Gazette, 106, 04 May 2006.

Organic Law 8/2013, of 9 December, for the im­provement of educational quality. Spanish Official State Gazette, 295, 10 December 2013.

Organic Law 3/2020 of 29 December 2020, which amends Organic Law 2/2006 of 3 May on Education. Spanish Official State Gazet­te, 340, of 30 December 2020, pages 122868 to 122953.

Porras, F. (2018). Modelo canónico, problemas fundamentales y gobernanza urbana [Ca­nonical model, fundamental problems and urban governance]. Open Insight, 9 (15), 11-44.

Real Academia Española (RAE) (2017). Diccio­nario de la lengua española [Dictionary of the Spanish language].

Reimers, F. M. (2021). Reformas educativas del siglo xxi para un aprendizaje más profun­do. Una perspectiva internacional [21st cen­tury education reforms for deeper learning. An international perspective]. Narcea-UC­JC Stamp.

Sahlberg, P. (2015). Finnish lessons 2.0. What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? Teachers College Press, Co­lumbia University.

Sebastián, C. (2016). España estancada. Por qué somos poco eficientes [Spain stagnates. Why we are inefficient]. Galaxia Gutenberg.

Segovia Marco, A. (2015). La técnica legisla­tiva en la elaboración de anteproyectos de leyes [Legislative technique in the drafting of preliminary draft laws]. Gabilex, 1, 5-44.­culo_tecnica_legislativa_as.pdf

Snyder, S. (2013). The simple, the complicated, and the complex: educational reform through the lens of complexity theory. OECD Educa­tion Working Paper, 96. OECD Publishing.

TIMSS (2020). Trends in international mathe­matics and science study 2019. https://www.

United Nations (2007). Public governance indi­cators: A literature review. Department of Economics and Social Affairs.

World Bank (1989). From crisis to sustainable growth sub-Saharan Africa: A long-term perspective study. The World Bank.

World Bank (1992). Governance and develop­ment. The World Bank.

World Bank (1994). Governance. The World Bank’s experience. Development in practice. The World Bank.

Yolles, M. (2005). Organisational intelligence. The Journal of Workplace Learning, 17 (1/2), 99-114.

Francisco López Rupérez has a Doctorate in Physical Sciences and holds a Secondary School Chair. He is current­ly Director of the Chair in Educational Policies at the Universidad Camilo José Cela. He has been Director of the Liceo Español de París, Director General of Educational Centres of Spain’s Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, Secre­tary General for Education and Profes­sional Training in the same ministry, and President of the State School Council. He has written more than a dozen books and over a hundred articles in Spanish and foreign journals.

Data collected by PlumX Metrics.

This article has been read 481 times