From the perception to the uses of time: Time perspective and procrastination among adults in Spain

De la percepción a los usos del tiempo: perspectiva temporal y procrastinación de adultos en España

Nuria Codina Mata, Rafael Valenzuela García and José Vicente Pestana Montesinos

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22550/REP78-3-2020-04

The behavioural sciences have investigated the relationship between time domain or control and human development from a variety of perspectives, in recent decades, outlining two attitudinal manifestations that are deeply involved in such development: time orientations and procrastination. There is abundant literature regarding these concepts, but few works provide data about the relationship between these attitudes and aspects of everyday life, data that might identify options to regulate such attitudes. This paper analyses time perspective and procrastination with regards to age, temporal characteristics of work, and living arrangements. 720 adults (390 men and 330 women) aged between 18 and 64 years (M = 40.44; SD = 9.80) participated. The instruments used were an ad hoc questionnaire on sociodemographic data, and two scales validated for the Spanish population: the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and a procrastination instrument that combines the General Procrastination Scale, the Decisional Procrastination Questionnaire, and the Adult Inventory of Procrastination. The results show an unbalanced general perspective in the sample as a whole, with significant relationships by age, living arrangements (e.g., more negative past d = .33 — and hedonistic present — d = .30 — among respondents who live with their parents) and temporal characteristics of work (e.g., more fatalistic present in respondents with rigid schedules — = .53). Procrastination is more present in young people aged between 18 and 29 (in the dilatory behaviour — d = .63 — and lack of punctuality — = .69 — factors). Also, several of these factors are associated with living alone or with extending the working day. These findings highlight determining factors relating to attitudes to time, results that highlight specific variables from daily life which can be the subject of interventions to facilitate the development of people with the potential to dominate or control time.


Please, cite this article as follows: Codina, N., Valenzuela, R., Pestana, J. V. (2020). De la percepción a los usos del tiempo: perspectiva temporal y procrastinación de adultos en España | From the perception to the uses of time: Time perspective and procrastination among adults in Spain. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 78 (277), 435-456. doi: https://doi.org/10.22550/REP78-3-2020-04

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Nuria Codina Mata is a Professor in the Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology at the Universidad de Barcelona and a member of the PsicoSAO  (social, environmental and organizational psychology) consolidated research group (2017 SGR 564). Her lines of psychosocial research focus on: time and leisure activities, leisure experiences, enjoyment and autonomy in the practice of structured and unstructured activities, procrastination and temporal orientations.

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0280-3651

Rafael Valenzuela García is a PhD in Culture and Heritage Management from the Universidad de Barcelona. Professor in the Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology at the Universidad de Barcelona and member of the PsicoSAO consolidated research group (2017 SGR 564). He researches from a psycho-pedagogical-social perspective the formation of quality motivation in formal learning and in leisure, especially in musical practice.

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9935-1745

José Vicente Pestana Montesinos has a PhD in Psychology from the Universidad de Barcelona. Professor in the Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology at the Universidad de Barcelona and member of the PsicoSAO consolidated research group (2017 SGR 564). His scientific career has been based on the interweaving of leisure activities in the daily life of individuals — with emphasis on the development of the person (having recently incorporated the Jungian analytical perspective). Specialised in the study of theatre.

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8329-0650