Upbringing and parenting. Detection of socio-educational and training needs in parents

Educación y crianza de los hijos. Detección de necesidades socioeducativas y formativas de los progenitores

Francisco José Rubio Hernández, María del Carmen Jiménez Fernández and M.ª Paz Trillo Miravalles

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22550/REP79-2-2021-08

Parents often ask themselves what to do and how to deal with the different situations that arise with their children. Parent education programmes (PEP) attempt to provide answers to these questions. Nevertheless, it is pertinent to perform an updated assessment of parents’ training and socio-educational needs in relation to the upbringing and parenting of children. To this end, the following objectives were set: a) to determine the degree of compliance with the principles of positive parenting (PPP) in a sam­ple of mothers and fathers; b) to detect clusters of parents according to PPP and socio-demo­graphic characteristics; c) to identify their pref­erences regarding training and attendance at these interventions. The sample consisted of 389 parents. Qualitative content and quantitative de­scriptive and multivariate cluster analyses were performed and Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H, Binomial and Chi-square tests were applied. Results showed lower scores for communication, stress management and involvement, and high­er scores for shared activities, recognition and affection. Four clusters of parents were obtained (low, medium, high and very high PPP follow-up). They expressed a preference for the group for­mat of the programme, attendance at weekends, in the afternoon and when the children are in early childhood. Some of the training content mentioned was related to emotions, communica­tion, conflict resolution, behaviour management, information and communication technologies, values, norms, sexuality and drugs. Respondents require interventions that take into account the priorities expressed. The findings will allow us to confirm whether the interventions implemented and evaluated in the context explored are a suit­able response to the needs detected, and also to justify the design of any new ones, if necessary.

Please, cite this article as follows: Rubio Hernández, F. J., Jiménez Fernández, M. C., & Trillo Miravalles, M. P. (2021). Educación y crianza de los hijos. Detección de necesidades socioeducativas y formativas de los progenitores | Upbringing and parenting. Detection of socio-educational and training needs in parents. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 79 (279), 249-267. https://doi.org/10.22550/REP79-2-2021-08

Ato, M., López-García, J. J., & Benavente, A. (2013). Un sistema de clasificación de los diseños de in­vestigación en psicología [A classification sys­tem for research designs in psychology]. Anales de Psicología, 29 (3), 1038-1059. http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.3.178511

Autonomous Community of the Region of Mur­cia (CARM) (2021). Hogares según estructura y tamaño [Households by structure and size]. https://bit.ly/3b4dkOp

Chinchilla, R., & Jiménez, F. (2015). Necesidades de orientación de padres y madres de colegios académicos diurnos de la dirección regional de San José Norte [Parent guidance needs in aca­demic day schools in the San José Norte regional education authority]. Actualidades Investi­gativas en Educación, 15 (1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.15517/aie.v15i1.17630

Council of Europe (2006). Recommendation Rec 2006/19 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on policy to support positive parenting. Explanatory Report. https://bit.ly/3jqOdaT

Esteban, E., & Firbank, O. (2019). Parentalidad positiva, riesgo e intervención: un análisis de los dispositivos de apoyo vigentes en Québec [Positive parenting, risk and intervention: an analysis of the support mechanisms in place in Québec]. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 32 (1), 99-111. https://doi.org/10.5209/cuts.56715

European Commission (2018). Ethics in Social Science and Humanities. https://bit.ly/3nZVzFw

García, M. P. (2012). Fundamentos teóricos y me­todológicos de la evaluación de programas [Theoretical and methodological foundations of programme evaluation]. Diego Marín.

Gil, J. A. (2015). Metodología cuantitativa en edu­cación [Quantitative methodology in educa­tion]. UNED.

Golombok, S. (2016). Familias modernas. Padres e hijos en las nuevas formas de familia [Modern families. Parents and children in the new forms of family]. Siglo xxi.

Hernández, R., & Mendoza, C. P. (2018). Metodo­logía de la investigación. Las rutas cuantitati­va, cualitativa y mixta [Research methodology Quantitative, qualitative and mixed routes]. McGraw-Hill.

Limiñana, A. R., Suriá, R., & Mateo, M. A. (2018). Problemas de conducta infantil y competencias parentales en madres en contextos de violen­cia de género [Child behavioural problems and parenting skills in mothers in contexts of gender-based violence]. Gaceta Sanitaria, 32 (1), 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2017.02.004

Márquez, L., Madueño, M. L., Carballo, A., & Cas­tillo, A. (2019). La participación parental en educación básica desde la perspectiva del profe­sorado [Parent participation in basic education from the teachers’ perspective]. In Crescendo, 10 (2), 387-407. https://bit.ly/37DFtMa

Martínez, R. A., Iglesias, M. T., & Pérez, M. H. (2021). Validación de la escala de competencias parentales emocionales y sociales para ma­dres [Validation of the scale of emotional and social parental skills for mothers]. Pedagogía Social, 37 (1), 69-83. https://doi.org/10.7179/psri_2021.37.04

Martínez, R. A., Pérez, M. H., & Álvarez, L. (2007). Estrategias para prevenir y afrontar conflictos en las relaciones familiares (padres e hijos) [Strategies to prevent and deal with conflicts in family relationships (parents and children)]. Spanish Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. https://cutt.ly/pt1x8mR

Martínez, R. A., Rodríguez, B., Álvarez, L., & Be­cedóniz, C. (2016). Evidence in promoting po­sitive parenting through the Program-Guide to Develop Emotional Competences. Psychosocial Intervention, 25 (2), 111-117. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.psi.2016.04.001

Morales, S., Martínez, M. J., Martín, R., & Nieto, J. (2016). Las prácticas de crianza y la reducción de los problemas de conducta infantil [Paren­ting practices and reducing child behavioural problems]. Psicología Conductual, 24 (2), 341-357. https://bit.ly/3tYFxis

Organic Law 3/2018, of 5 December, on the Protec­tion of Personal Data and guarantee of digital rights (2018). Spanish Official State Gazette, 294, of 6 December, 9788-119857. https://www.boe.es/eli/es/lo/2018/12/05/3

Peixoto, S., & Tomás, A. (2017). Necessidades nos apoios à parentalidade: perceções e práticas dos profissionais de saúde [Needs in parenting support: perceptions and practices of health professionals]. Revista de estudios e investiga­ción en psicología y educación, 15 (5), 278-282. https://doi.org/10.17979/reipe.2017.0.05.2760

Rodrigo, M. J. (Coord.) (2015). Manual práctico de parentalidad positiva [Practical manual on positive parenting]. Síntesis.

Rodrigo, M. J. (2016). Calidad de la implementa­ción en los programas de parentalidad positi­va basados en evidencias en España [Quality of implementation in evidence-based positive parenting programmes in Spain]. Psychoso­cial Intervention, 25 (2), 63-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psi.2016.02.004

Rodrigo, M. J., Máiquez, M. L., & Martín, J. C. (2010). Parentalidad positiva y políticas loca­les de apoyo a las familias. Orientaciones para favorecer el ejercicio de las responsabilidades parentales desde las corporaciones locales [Po­sitive parenting and local policies to support fa­milies. Guidance to aid the exercise of parental responsibilities from local corporations]. Minis­terio de Sanidad y Política Social. https://bit. ly/3mhZCvf

Rubio, F. J., Trillo, M. P., & Jiménez, C. (2020). Pro­gramas grupales de parentalidad positiva: una revisión sistemática de la producción científica [Group positive parenting programmes: a sys­tematic review of scientific research]. Revista de Educación, 389 (3), 267-295. https://bit.ly/2HtylHl

Suárez, A., Byrne, S., & Rodrigo, M. J. (2016). Va­lidación de la Escala de Parentalidad Positiva (EPP) para evaluar programas presenciales y online de apoyo parental [Validation of the Positive Parenting Scale (PPS) to evaluate face-to-face and online parent support program­mes]. Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología y Educación, 3 (2), 112-120. https://doi.org/10.17979/reipe.2016.3.2.1883

To, S. M., Kwok, C. M., So, Y. Y., & Yan, M. W. (2019). Parent education for migrant mothers of left-behind children in China: A pilot ran-domized controlled trial. Family Process, 58 (2), 318-333. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12369

Torio, S., Peña, J. V, García, O., & Inda, M. (2019). Evolución de la Parentalidad Positiva: estudio longitudinal de los efectos de la aplicación de un programa de educación parental [Evolu­tion of positive parenting: Longitudinal study on the effects of applying a parent education programme]. Revista Electrónica Interuniver­sitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 22 (3), 109-126. https://doi.org/10.6018/reifop.389621

Vázquez, N., Molina, M. C., & Artazcoz, L. (2016). Validación de un instrumento en español para medir habilidades parentales promovidas en una intervención de educación parental [Vali­dation of an instrument in Spanish to measure parenting skills promoted in a parent educa­tion intervention]. REIRE. Revista d’Innova­ció i Recerca en Educación, 9 (2), 30-47. https://doi.org/10.1344/reire2016.9.2923

Francisco José Rubio Hernández is a UNED-Banco Santander pre-doctoral researcher at the Employment and Guid­ance Centre (COIE). He holds a Master’s Degree in Innovation and Research in Ed­ucation (UNED) and a Master’s Degree in Teacher Training (University of Murcia). He managed a centre for educational-fam­ily guidance and re-education (2014-2020) and was a teaching fellow at the Depart­ment of Research Methods and Diagnosis in Education (Universidad de Murcia), at Isabel I Universidad and at Camilo José Cela Universidad.


María del Carmen Jiménez Fernán­dez is Emeritus Professor at UNED, a university where she held the positions of: Director of the Teacher Training Pro­gramme (1988-1989), Director of Lifelong Learning (1989-1995), Dean of the School of Education (1995-1999), Director of the Working Group responsible for drawing up the PhD Programme in Education (2011-2013), and Coordinator of the PhD Programme in Education of the UNED In­ternational Doctoral School (2013-2017), among other relevant positions.


M.ª Paz Trillo Miravalles is Se-nior Lecturer in the School of Education at UNED, Lecturer on the PhD Pro­gramme in Education at the Doctoral School of UNED, in the area of talent development, guidance and transitions throughout life, and also co-director of the University Expert qualification in Diagnosis and Education of Gifted Stu­dents. Her research interests mainly lie in diversity and road safety education, with a specific focus on digitally medi­ated contexts.