Analysis of a survey on the teaching of writing in compulsory education: Teachers’ practices and variables

Análisis de una encuesta sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en la educación obligatoria: prácticas y variables del profesorado

Rut Sánchez-Rivero, Rui A. Alves, Teresa Limpo and Raquel Fidalgo


In this article, we analyse the reported use of evidence-based practices for the teaching of writing by teachers in compulsory education. These practices were taken from a review of meta-analysis studies in the field of writing in­struction. This study accounts for differences throughout compulsory education in the use of these instructional practices. We also analyse the effects of teachers’ variables such as per­sonal efficacy, general efficacy, attitudes and, preparation, on the instructional practices they use. Five-hundred and fifteen teachers of Spanish language and literature from dif­ferent primary and high schools in Castilla y León participated in the study. Participants completed an online questionnaire about how often they use evidence-based practices taken from an exhaustive review of meta-analyses in the field of writing instruction. In addition, we took measures of teachers’ personal and gen­eral efficacy, their attitudes towards writing and the teaching of writing, and their level of preparation to teach writing. The results show that teachers make little use of this type of in­structional practice, especially in high school. High school teachers reported significantly lower levels of personal efficacy and prepara­tion for the teaching of writing than teachers in primary grades. Teachers’ personal effica­cy level, their preparation for the teaching of writing, and their attitudes towards writing and its teaching influence their use of these instructional practices.

Please, cite this article as follows: Sánchez-Rivero, R., Alves, R. A., Limpo, T., & Fidalgo, R. (2021). Análisis de una encuesta sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en la educación obligatoria: prácticas y variables del profesorado | Analysis of a survey on the teaching of writing in compulsory education: Teachers’ practices and variables. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 79 (279), 321-340.


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Rut Sánchez-Rivero has a Licen­tiate Degree in Educational Psychology and a Master’s in Educational Orienta­tion from the Universidad de León. She currently holds a pre-doctoral academic training contract in the Faculty of Education at the Universidad de León, where she has a variety of research and teaching responsibilities. Her main re­search interests focus on assessment and intervention in the area of reading and writing.

Rui A. Alves is Associate Professor in the Faculty of Educational Psychol­ogy and Sciences of the Universidade de Porto (Portugal). His principal re­search interests focus on studying cog­nitive and affective processes in writ­ing through on-line techniques such as HandSpy, created by his research team. He also focusses on developmental study and intervention in literacy and learning disorders.

Teresa Limpo is Assistant Profes­sor in the Faculty of Educational Psy­chology and Sciences of the Universi­dade de Porto (Portugal). Her principal research interests focus on studying the cognitive and motivational processes in­volved in writing and the development of evidence-based writing interventions and professional development pro­grammes to train teachers in the use of these practices.

Raquel Fidalgo has a doctorate in Ed­ucational Psychology and Sciences. She is currently Associate Professor in the Faculty of Education at the Universidad de León. Her principal research interests focus on studying written composition from a psycho-educa­tional perspective in order to optimize its ac­quisition and preventing learning difficulties.