Teaching philosophy and cultivating intelligence. A second look at Critical Thinking and Indoctrination

La enseñanza de la filosofía y el cultivo de la inteligencia. Una segunda mirada al Sentido Crítico y al Adoctrinamiento

José Antonio Ibáñez-Martín

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22550/REP79-1-2021-11

Thinking demands an effort that many peo­ple avoid. Teaching philosophy is an especially valuable tool for cultivating intelligence. The teacher’s action demands a difficult balance be­tween caring for the development of the student while respecting the condition as a person that is inherent to her. This equilibrium is easier to achieve if one has an accurate idea of the mean­ing of the critical sense and of the importance of avoiding indoctrinatory behaviour. This article offers new approaches to these topics that differ from those proposed in previous years.

It defends the idea of also relating critical sense to insight and an expanded reason, and it draws attention to the importance of uncover­ing the indoctrinating activities of some states, in order that we might know how to struggle against not just personal errors but also against mistaken public initiatives, identifying the strategies teachers, and in particular philosophy teachers, should foster to prevent their students from falling into the trap of indoctrination.

The article concludes with a brief descrip­tion of an innovative curriculum that was ap­proved in France in 2019 to offer teaching of philosophy in the baccalaureate.


Please, cite this article as follows: Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (2021). La enseñanza de la filosofía y el cultivo de la inteligencia. Una segunda mirada al Sentido Crítico y al Adoctrinamiento | Teaching philosophy and cultivating intelligence. A second look at Critical Thinking and Indoctrination. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 79 (278), 33-50. https://doi.org/10.22550/REP79-1-2021-11

Ackerman, E., Ambar, S., Amis, M., Applebaum, A., Arana, M., Atwood, M., Banville, J., Bay, M., Begley, L., Berkowitz. R., Berman, P., Berman, S., Dwayne Betts, R., Blair, N., Blight, D. W., Finney Boylan, J., Bromwich, D., Brooks, D., Buruma, I. … Zakaria, F. (2020, July 7). A Letter on Justice and Open Debate. Harper’s Magazine. https://bit.ly/3om4h0E

Aquinas, T. (1886). In libros Aristotelis. De Caelo et mundo expositio. Lib. 1, lec.22, n. 8.

Aquinas, T. (1954). Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et Religionem, Pars 2ª, c. I (2), n. 37. In Opuscula Theologica. Marietti.

Aréchaga, I. (2020, September 9.). La secularización de la blasfemia [The secularisation of blasphemy]. El Sónar. https://bit.ly/3nup6Wl

Arenas, F. (2020). Discurso a favor de la filosofía [Speech in favour of philosophy]. Diálogo filosófico, 36 (106), 116-117.

Aristóteles. Metafísica [Metaphysics].

Booth, W. C. (1988). The Company we keep. An Ethics of Fiction. University of California Press.

Bornhausen, S. (2018). Sur l’enseignement de la philosophie au lycée [On the teaching of philosophy in secondary school]. La Découverte, 1, 389- 393.

Bouveresse, J. (2008). La Connaissance de l´écrivain. Sur la litterature, la verité et la vie [Writer’s Knowledge. On literature, truth and life]. Agone.

Bronner, G (2019, June 11). L´esprit critique peut s´enseigner et s´apprendre en tant que tel [Critical thinking can be taught and learned as such]. Le Monde. https://bit.ly/3oD8IEk

Gilson, E. (1974). El amor a la sabiduría [Love for wisdom.]. Asesoramientos y Servicios Educativos, A. C.

Hare, W. (1979). Openmindedness and education. McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (1969). El sentido crítico, objetivo de la educación contemporánea [Critical thinking, the aim of contemporary education]. Revista de Filosofía, 108-111, 77-93.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (1981). Introducción al concepto de adoctrinamiento [Introduction to the concept of indoctrination]. revista española de pedagogía, 39 (153), 89-97.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (1985). El sentido crítico ante la dialéctica libertad de enseñanza-libertad en la enseñanza [The critical sense regarding the dialectic of freedom of teaching- freedom in teaching]. Revista de la Universidad Complutense, 1-4, 90-104.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (1988). El profesor de filosofía y la enseñanza del sentido crítico. In Filosofía para un tiempo nuevo [Philosophy for a new era] (pp. 167-181). Real Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (1991). El sentido crítico y la formación de la persona. In V. García Hoz (Dir.), Enseñanza de la Filosofía en la educación secundaria [Teaching philosophy in secondary education] (pp. 202-225). Rialp.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (2006). Los referentes de la libertad. En Llamados a la libertad [Called for freedom] (pp. 263-271). Fundación Universitaria San Pablo CEU.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (2013). Libertad intelectual y cuidado en la educación institucional. In J. Ibáñez-Martín (Ed.), Educación, libertad y cuidado [Education, freedom and care] (pp. 55- 63). Dykinson.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (2015). Sentido crítico, gran política y democracia mediática [Critical sense, great politics and media democracy]. Teoría de la Educación, 27 (1), 53-67.

Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (2017). Horizontes para los educadores. Las profesiones educativas y la plenitud humana [Horizons for educators. Educational professions and human fulfilment]. Dykinson.

Kant, E. (2020). Crítica de la Razón Pura [Critique of Pure Reason]. Verbum. (Original work published 1781, 2nd ed. 1787)

Lacroix, J. (1970, October 30). Socrate fonctionnaire [Civil servant Socrates]. Le Monde. https://bit.ly/3bkhaou

Lalande, A. (1988). Vocabulaire technique et critique de la philosophie [Technical and critical vocabulary of philosophy]. Presses Universitaires de France.

Lewis, C. S. (1974). The Four Loves. Fontana Books. Manjón, A. (1948). Lo que son las Escuelas del Ave María [What the Ave Maria Schools are]. Patronato de Escuelas del Ave María.

Marrou, H. I. (1970). Historia de la educación en la antigüedad [History of education in antiquity]. Ediciones universitarias.

Millán-Puelles, A. (1963). La formación de la personalidad humana [The formation of the human personality]. Rialp.

Ministère de l´Éducation nationale, de la Jeunesse et des Sports (2019, January 22). Programme d´humanités, littérature et philosophie de première générale [Curriculum for the Humanities, Literature and Philosophy Specialty in the first class of the General Education Pathway]. Bulletin officiel de l´éducation nationale.

Nubiola, J. (2020). Diez metodologías y experiencias docents. In S. Fernández-Gubieda (Coord.), Docencia Rubic. Aprendizajes de la enseñanza universitaria en tiempos de la covid-19 [‘Rubik teaching’. Lessons from university education in the covid-19 era] (pp. 24-25). Ediciones Universidad de Navarra.

Pascal, B. (1958). Pensées [Thoughts]. E. P. Dutton & Co.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2003). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking. Concepts and Tools. Foundation of Critical Thinking.

Perkins, D. N. (1991). Educating for insight. Educational Leadership, 49 (2), 4-8.

Platón. (2005). Apología de Sócrates [Apology of Socrates]. Akal.

Pringle, P. (2008). The murder of Nikolai Vavilov: The story of Stalin’s persecution of one of the great scientists of the twentieth century. Simon & Schuster.

Real Academia Española (1992). Diccionario de la lengua española [Spanish language dictionary]. Espasa.

Reboul, O. (1989). La philosophie de l´éducation [Philosophy of education]. Presses Universitaires de France.

Siegel, H. (1988). Educating reason: Rationality, critical thinking and education. Routledge.

Siegel, H. (2009). Open-mindedness, Critical Thinking, and Indoctrination: Homage to William Hare. Paideusis, 18 (1), 26-34.

World Economic Forum (2020). The Future of Jobs Report. October 2020. https://bit.ly/3pYK3KM

Zola, E. (1968). Le naturalisme au théâtre. Le Roman experimental [Naturalism in the theatre. The experimental novel]. In Oeuvres complètes. Cercle du libre précieux. (Original work published 1880)

 

José Antonio Ibáñez Martín. The author started his teaching career in secondary education. He taught in several private schools and was awarded a secondary school chair in philosophy in 1964. He started working as a Teaching Fellow at the Universidad Complutense in 1968, where he completed his doctoral thesis and rose through the academic ranks, being awarded a university chair in philosophy of education in 1980. He was also part of the first governing body of the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. He is currently a Professor and Vice-rector for doctoral studies at the Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR) and is Director of the revista española de pedagogía.

He has published over 150 works in five different languages, has participated in over 50 conferences, and has received numerous prizes. He was appointed Emeritus Professor at the Universidad Complutense in 2010 and in 2013 was awarded the Grand Cross of Alfonso X, the Wise, the highest decoration in Spain in the field of education, science, culture, teaching, and research.

 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1171-7117