Bernal-Guerrero, A. (Ed.) (2021). Educación emprendedora. Fundamentos y elementos para la transferencia e innovación pedagógica [Entrepreneurship education: Foundations and elements for pedagogical transfer and innovation] (Roberto Sanz Ponce).
Bernal-Guerrero, A. (Ed.) (2021).
Educación emprendedora. Fundamentos y elementos para la transferencia e innovación pedagógica [Entrepreneurship education: Foundations and elements for pedagogical transfer and innovation].
Síntesis. 230 pp.
Contemporary society is characterised by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA), as defined by Zygmunt Bauman, and requires citizens to possess a collection of requisite skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in order to confront the problems, challenges, and obstacles of the twenty-first century and so be able to interpret, comprehend, and transform social reality. Accordingly, from the Lisbon European Council (2000) to the present day, a series of policies, conventions, regulations, and programmes have been implemented and delivered both nationally and internationally, in which entrepreneurial culture is promoted as one possible response to this set of challenges posed by the knowledge society. The need to implement entrepreneurship education is a result of these initiatives. At the level of education in Spain, this need is embodied in the inclusion of the entrepreneurial competence in Spain’s most recent education acts (the Organic Education Act [LOE, 2006] and the Organic Education Im provement Act [LOMCE, 2013]), which display a growing concern with the introduction of this practice in the basic and obligatory education of all students.
The authors of this work present an understanding of the entrepreneurial competence as something broader than mere development of the economic and/ or business dimensions. It is a new theoretical educational focus approached from a humanist perspective. Therefore, this vision also considers the development of a series of personal and social values directed at the construction of life projects, values that enable the construction of a true entrepreneurial identity. It is a matter of bringing school and educational practice closer to entrepreneurial culture, the world of trade and business, by creating joint learning communities where certain personal qualities are developed in students: self-confidence, leadership, handling failure, creativity, innovation, optimism, initiative, autonomy, responsibility, and personal maturity. Qualities that indicate a clear concern for entrepreneurship education understood as a project of humanising education.
In this work, the phenomenon of entrepreneurship is approached from a holis-tic perspective in which the aim is not just to develop a repertoire of skills and a body of knowledge around the subject, as noted above. Instead, it pursues the implementation of an ethical, civic, cultural, social, and personal vision of the entrepreneurial phenomenon, taking education at non-university levels as a foundation and springboard for the construction of an entrepreneurial culture. Therefore, an education that improves students’ personal development and has an impact in the social sphere is pursued.
To put this entrepreneurship education in place, the authors note the importance of teachers having training in entrepreneurship, taking four fundamental principles as a basis: applicability, the constructivist view of learning, interdisciplinarity, and transferability. In addition, a methodological training is required for undertaking this type of teaching. A teaching that is practical, active, experiential, and close to experience. One where students undertake the fundamental role in their own learning process, becoming the main figure and centre of the educational process. The teacher training that the authors call for is a response to two aspects: on the one hand, there is a need to provide teachers with suitable pedagogical and methodological resources for teaching the entrepreneurial competence, and on the other hand, there is a need to turn them into educational entrepreneurs. A training, both theoretical–conceptual and practical–methodological, that takes into account methodological principles that are close to observational learning, cooperative learning, project-based learning, experiential and exploratory learning, and problem-based learning, among other types.
To carry out all of these initiatives and tackle the topics listed, this book, edited by Professor Antonio Bernal, contains a number of chapters written by a varied group of academics from public and private universities in Spain (Universidad de Sevilla, Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, Universidad de Burgos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ESIC [Business & Marketing School], and Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha). In these chapters, the topic of entrepreneurship education is analysed from a variety of different perspectives. Consequently, the aim of this work is clearly holistic. The chapters and authors are distributed as follows: Chapter 1, by Antonio Bernal, provides an extensive conceptual foundation for the meaning and scope of entrepreneurship education, defining the concept of entrepreneurial identity as the basis of educational activity. Chapter 2, by Arantxa Azqueta, presents an analysis of the different policies and measures from different international institutions, locating entrepreneurship education in the framework of an international perspective. Chapter 3, by Margarita Núñez, describes the future of entrepreneur-ial competence in a society marked by a digital economy and the role schools and teachers must play in this new educational focus. Chapter 4, by Inmaculada Jaén, Joaquín Obando, and Francisco Liñán, examines the impact of local sociocultural context on economic development and on entrepreneurial capacity. This situation leads the authors to reconsider the usefulness of entrepreneurship education as a tool for the development and growth of the youth population. Chapter 5, by Carolina Fernández-Salinero, considers the curricular dimension of entrepreneurship education, its role in Spain’s educational system, and the need to implement active and participatory methodologies as a mechanism for social, personal, and economic development. Chapter 6, by Antonio Cárdenas and Elisabet Montoro, examines the complex world of teacher training. It considers the need for specific training for teachers in entrepreneurship education, analysing the areas associated with training and the principles that should govern it. Chapter 7, by Isabel Rico, Tamara de la Torre, Camino Escolar, Ascensión Palomares, Diego Jiménez, and Alfredo Jiménez-Eguizabal, considers the concept of social entrepreneurship for what it describes as the changemaker concept. It proposes an education that develops a new citizenship, developing a citizen ethos among students that can promote transformation, turning the citizen into an agent of social change. Chapter 8, by Antonio Bernal and Antonio Cárdenas, evaluates entrepreneurship education taking the opinions of students and teachers, obtained in research carried out in secondary schools as its reference. It also analyses entrepreneurship education programmes in the opinion of the teachers of this subject. Finally, Chapter 9, again by Antonio Bernal and Antonio Cárdenas, sets out a series of instruments for evaluating entrepreneurship education in secondary students and analyses the pertinence and relevance of each of them. Ultimately, this work has a clear pedagogical character and a new theoretical focus on education approached from a humanist perspective that can become a key element for researchers and teachers in the field of education who are interested in a new educational outlook that can combine realism and humanism, two approaches that are sadly all too often in opposition.
Roberto Sanz Ponce ■